Y-DNA Haplogroup C and its Subclades - 2011
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 4 August 2011

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2010 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

C   M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216, P184, P255/P325, P260/P324, Page85
�     C*   -
�     C1   M8, M105, M131, P122
�    �     C1*   -
�    �     C1a   P121
�     C2   M38
�    �     C2*   -
�    �     C2a   M208
�    �     �     C2a*   -
�    �     �     C2a1   P33_1, P33_2, P33_3
�    �     �     C2a2   P54
�     C3   M217, P44, PK2
�    �     C3*   -
�    �     C3a   M93
�    �     C3b   P39
�    �     C3c   M48, M77
�    �     �     C3c*   --
�    �     �     C3c1   M86
�    �     C3d   M407
�    �     C3e   P53.1
�    �     C3f   P62
�     C4   M347, P309
�    �     C4*   -
�    �     C4a   M210
�     C5   M356
�    �     C5*   -
�    �     C5a   P92
�     C6   P55


Y-DNA haplogroup C appears to have arisen shortly after modern humans left Africa and is estimated to be approximately 50,000 years old. The haplogroup can be traced across the southern Arabian Peninsula through Pakistan and India into Sri Lanka and Australia, and Southeast Asia.

C* is found on the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and in parts of SE Asia. The rare C1 lineage appears to be restricted to Japan. C2 is found predominantly in New Guinea, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The successful C3 lineage is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia, spreading from there into northern Asia and the Americas. C3 is also found in low concentrations in eastern and central Europe, where it may represent evidence of the westward expansion of the Huns in the early middle ages; subhaplogroup C3b seems to be found only in the Americas. C4 is found exclusively among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. C5 has a significant presence in India with a single instance known from Pakistan. C6 is a recently recognized group whose geographical associations were not reported.


Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524�539, (2003).
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Geppert et al, Hierarchical Y-SNP Assay to Study the Hidden Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship of Native Populations in South America, Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6 Oct 2010. [Epub ahead of print]
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Pakendorf et al, Investigating the Effects of Prehistoric Migrations in Siberia: Genetic Variation and the Origins of Yakuts, Human Genetics, Volume 120, Number 3, 334-353, 2006.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinetnal Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Underhill et al, Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations. (abstract) Annual Review Genetics, 41:539-564, December 1, 2007(a).

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
C/C3 Haplogroup, Ed Martin.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2011:

Contact Person for Haplogroup C: David Reynolds

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