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|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2012 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
D M174/Page30, IMS-JST021355
• D* -
• D1 M15
• • D1* -
• • D1a N1
• D2 M55, M57, M64.1/Page44.1, M179/Page31, M359.1/P41.1, P37.1, P190, 12f2.2
• • D2* -
• • D2a M116.1
• • • D2a* -
• • • D2a1 M125
• • • • D2a1* -
• • • • D2a1a P42
• • • • • D2a1a* -
• • • • • D2a1a1 P12_1, P12_2, P12_3
• • • • D2a1b CTS107/IMS-JST055457, IMS-JST022457
• • • • • D2a1b* -
• • • • • D2a1b1 P53.2
• • • • • D2a1b2 IMS-JST006841/Page3
• • • • • • D2a1b2* -
• • • • • • D2a1b2a Z1500
• • • • • • • D2a1b2a* -
• • • • • • • D2a1b2a1 Z1524
• • • D2a2 M151
• • • D2a3 P120
• • • D2a4 IMS-JST022456
• D3 P99
• • D3* -
• • D3a P47
• • • D3a* -
• • • D3a1 M533
Experimental D Tree by Ray Banks.Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup D is seen primarily in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and in Japan and was established approximately 50,000 years ago. Sub-group D1 (D-M15) is seen in Tibet, Mongolia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the sub-groups D* (D-M174) and D3 (D-P47) are seen in Central Asia. The sub-group D2 (D-M55) is seen almost exclusively in Japan. The high frequency of haplogroup D in Tibet (about 50%) and in Japan (about 35%) implies some early migratory connection between these areas. Examination of the genetic diversity seen in sub-group D2 in Japan implies that this group has been isolated in Japan for between 12,000-20,000 years. The highest frequencies of D2 in Japan are seen among the Ainu and the Ryukyuans.
An isolated incidence of haplogroup D has also been seen in the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. This implies that the group may once have had a much greater range, but has subsequently been displaced by more recent population events.
Cristofaro et al,
Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge.
PLoS ONE 8(10): e76748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748, 2013.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1014-1022, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Naitoh S, et al, Assignment of Y-chromosomal SNPs Found in Japanese Population to Y-chromosomal Haplogroup tree. Journal of Human Genetics, 2013 Feb 7. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.159, 2013.
Nonaka et al, Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shi et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence of Earliest Modern Human Settlement in East Asia and Multiple Origins of Tibetan and Japanese Populations. (abstract) BMC Biology 2008, 6:45, 2008.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age, (pdf), American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
D Haplogroup (YDNA) Project, Ray Banks.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2013:
Contact Person for Haplogroup D: Ray H. Banks
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