Y-DNA Haplogroup E and its Subclades - 2013
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 5 December 2013

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2012 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

E   L339, L504/PF1803, L507/PF1874, L511, L537/PF1507, L614/PF1898/YSC0000032, L856,
       M40/SRY4064/SRY8299, M96/PF1823, P29/PF1643, P150/PF1704, P152/PF1646, P154,
       P155/PF1687, P156, P162/PF1496, P168, P169/Page54, P170/PF1656, P171/PF1903,
       P172/PF1510, P173, P174, P175, P176/PF1678
    E*   -
    E1   P147/PF1938
       E1*   -
       E1a   CTS2808/L633, M33, M132
           E1a*   -
           E1a1   M44
           E1a2   P110
           E1a3   L94
           E1a4   L133/Page74
      ; E1b   P177/PF1939
           E1b*   -
           E1b1   DYS391p, P2/PF1940/PN2, P178, P179, P180/PF1941, P181
              E1b1*   -
              E1b1a   L222.1, TSC0077541/V38, V100
                  E1b1a*   -
                  E1b1a1   CTS3105, CTS3989, CTS4350, CTS4415, CTS5539, CTS6474, CTS7095,
                                           CTS7641, CTS8068, CTS8123, CTS8443/TSC0769719, CTS8936,
                                           CTS9188, CTS9338, CTS10066, CTS10638, CTS10806,
                                           CTS11461/KHS1479188, CTS11579, CTS11729, DYS271/M2/SY81,
                                           L488, L491, L494, L608, L610
, M291, P1/PN1, P46, P189, P293,
                                           PAGES00106, TSC0424987, V43, V95, Z1101, Z1107, Z1116, Z1120,
                                           Z1122, Z1123, Z1124, Z1125, Z1127, Z1130, Z1133, Z1135
                     E1b1a1*   -
                     E1b1a1a   L576/TSC0860384
                         E1b1a1a*   -
                         E1b1a1a1   CTS1847, CTS3576, CTS10914, CTS10659,
                                                        CTS11732/KHS1381212, CTS12659
, L86.1, M180/P88, P182,
                                                        Page66, Z1111, Z1132
                            E1b1a1a1*   -
                            E1b1a1a1a   M58, Page27
                            E1b1a1a1b   M116.2
                            E1b1a1a1c   M149
                            E1b1a1a1d   M155
                            E1b1a1a1e   M10, M66, M156, M195
                            E1b1a1a1f    L485
                                E1b1a1a1f*   -
                                E1b1a1a1f1   L514
                                   E1b1a1a1f1*   -
                                   E1b1a1a1f1a   M191/P86, U186, P253/U247, TSC1640819/Z1712.1
                                       E1b1a1a1f1a*   -
                                       E1b1a1a1f1a1   P252/U174
                                          E1b1a1a1f1a1*   -
                                          E1b1a1a1f1a1a   P9.2
                                          E1b1a1a1f1a1b   P115
                                          E1b1a1a1f1a1c   P116
                                              E1b1a1a1f1a1c*   -
                                               E1b1a1a1f1a1c1   P113
                                          E1b1a1a1f1a1d   CTS8030/Z1704
                                   E1b1a1a1f1b   L515, L516, L517, M263.2
                                       E1b1a1a1f1b*   -
                                       E1b1a1a1f1b1   Z1893
                            E1b1a1a1g   U175
                                E1b1a1a1g*   -
                                E1b1a1a1g1   P277, P278.1, U209
                                   E1b1a1a1g1*   -
                                   E1b1a1a1g1a   U290
                                       E1b1a1a1g1a*   -
                                       E1b1a1a1g1a1   U181
                                          E1b1a1a1g1a1*   -
                                          E1b1a1a1g1a1a   L97
                                       E1b1a1a1g1a2   Z1725
                                   E1b1a1a1g1b   P59
                                   E1b1a1a1g1c   M154
                                   E1b1a1a1g1d   V39
                            E1b1a1a1h   P268, P269
                  E1b1a2   M329
              E1b1b   M215/Page40/PF1942
                  E1b1b*   -
                  E1b1b1   M35.1
                     E1b1b1*   -
                     E1b1b1a   V68
                         E1b1b1a*   -
                         E1b1b1a1   L18, M78/PF2186
                            E1b1b1a1*   -
                            E1b1b1a1a   Z1902
                                E1b1b1a1a*   -
                                E1b1b1a1a1   V12/Z1216
                                   E1b1b1a1a1*   -
                                   E1b1b1a1a1a   M224
                                   E1b1b1a1a1b   V32
                                E1b1b1a1a2   PF2272/V65
                            E1b1b1a1b   Z1919, Z1920
                                E1b1b1a1b*   -
                                E1b1b1a1b1   L618
                                   E1b1b1a1b1*   -
                                   E1b1b1a1b1a   L142.1, L542/PF2220, PF2211/V13, PF2210/V36,
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a*   -
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a1   V27
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a2   P65_1, P65_2, P65_3
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a3   L17
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a4   DYS643-null/L143
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a5   M35.2
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a6   L241
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a7   L250, L251, L252
                                       E1b1b1a1b1a8   L540
                                E1b1b1a1b2   CTS9547/L677, V22
                                   E1b1b1a1b2*   -
                                   E1b1b1a1b2a   M148
                                   E1b1b1a1b2b   V19
                                   E1b1b1a1b2c   L674, L675
                            E1b1b1a1c   M521
                     E1b1b1b   CTS1243/Z827
                         E1b1b1b*   -
                         E1b1b1b1   L19/V257, L335/PF2300, M310/PF2402
                            E1b1b1b1*   -
                            E1b1b1b1a   M81/PF2554
                                E1b1b1b1a*   -
                                E1b1b1b1a1   M107
                                E1b1b1b1a2   M183/Page33
                                   E1b1b1b1a2*   -
                                   E1b1b1b1a2a    M165
                        E1b1b1b2   Z830
                            E1b1b1b2*   -
                            E1b1b1b2a   M123/PF2023
                                E1b1b1b2a*   -
                                E1b1b1b2a1   M34/PF2022
                                   E1b1b1b2a1*   -
                                   E1b1b1b2a1a   M84, L29/Page47
                                       E1b1b1b2a1a*   -
                                       E1b1b1b2a1a1   M136
                                   E1b1b1b2a1b   M290
                                   E1b1b1b2a1c   V23  (V23 relationship to M84 and M290 uncertain)
                                   E1b1b1b2a1d   L791, L792
                            E1b1b1b2b   M293
                                E1b1b1b2b*   -
                                E1b1b1b2b1   P72
                            E1b1b1b2c    V42
                     E1b1b1c   V6
                     E1b1b1d   V92
                  E1b1b2   M281, V16
           E1b2   P75
    E2   M75, P68
       E2*   -
       E2a   M41/P210
       E2b   M54, M90, M98
           E2b*   -
           E2b1   M85
              E2b1*   -
              E2b1a   M200
                  E2b1a*    -
                  E2b1a1   P45
                  E2b1a2   P258

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in northern hemisphere of Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. E1b1 is by far the lineage of greatest geographical distribution. It has two major sub-lineages, E1b1a and E1b1b. E1b1a is a lineage that originated and expanded from West or Central Africa to Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. E1b1b probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. E1b1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa. E2 is possibly of Central African origin and is spread in low frequencies across the continent. The Cruciani articles (references and links below) are indispensable resources for understanding the structure of this complicated haplogroup, but note that the Cruciani haplogroup labels are now superseded because of the recently discovered new SNPS that lie closer to the root of the E branch of the Y-haplogroup Tree.

A caution on clade labels: Because knowledge of this branch of the Y-chromosome tree has advanced so quickly in the last few years, different clade labels can be found in current use for the same SNP-determined branch of the tree. For example, it is still common to see E3b1 and E3b2 used to distinguish between the M78 and M81 branches of the tree though greater resolution is now possible.


Adams et al, The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Battaglia et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe European Journal of Human Genetics, 249. 2008.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524539, (2003).
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cadenas et al, Y-chromosome Diversity Characterizes the Gulf of Oman. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:374-386, 2008.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1014-1022, 2004.
Cruciani et al, Molecular Dissection of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a): A Posteriori Evaluation of a Microsatellite-Networked-Based Approach Through Six New Biallelic Markers. (pdf) Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #916, 2006.
Cruciani et al, Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12. (pdf) Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(6):1300-1311, 2007.
Cruciani et al, Recurrent Mutation in SNPs within Y chromosome E3b (E-M215) Haplogroup: A Rebuttal. (abstract) American Journal of Human Biolology. Sep-Oct;20(5):614-6, 2008.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Firasat et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence for a Limited Greek Contribution to the Pathan Population of Pakistan, European Journal Human Genetics, 15:121+126, 2007.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Gomes et al, Digging Deeper into East African Human Y Chromosone Lineages, Human Genetics, 127(5):603-13, 2010.
Henn et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence of a Pastoralist Migration through Tanzania to Southern Africa. PNAS, vol. 105 no. 31 10693-10698, 2008.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
King et al, The Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205214. 2008.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Repping et al, High mutation rates have driven extensive structural polymorphism among human Y chromosomes. Nature Genetics 38, 463 - 467, 2006.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Schuster et al, Complete Khoisan and Bantu Genomes from Southern Africa. (abstract) Nature 463, 943-947, 18 February 2010.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Semino et al, Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1023-1034, 2004.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Trombetta et al, A New Topology of the Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E1b1 (E-P2) Revealed through the Use of Newly Characterized Binary Polymorphisms. PLoS ONE 6(1), Online, 2011.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.

Additional Resources:

ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
E1a - (M33, M132) Project.
Haplogroup E1b1a (E1b1a1-M2), Roberta Estes.
The African DNA Project (E1b1a), Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon.
Arabian E Y-DNA Project (E1b1).
E-M35 Project (formerly the E3b Project) (E1b1b1), Bill Harvey, Denis Savard, Victor Villarreal.
E-M35 Project - New SNP Tracker.
The E-M35 Phylogeny Project, Victor Villareal.
Double Helix Forums, E-M35 community.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2013:

Contact Person for Haplogroup E: Aaron R. Brown.

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