Y-DNA Haplogroup N and its Subclades
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 16 October 2006

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Renamed 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2005 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

N   LLY22g, M231
       N*   -
       N1   M128
       N2   P43
             N2*   -
             N2a   P63
       N3   Tat (M46)
             N3*   -
             N3a   M178
                    N3a*   -
                    N3a1   P21

Note on the b2/b3 deletion:
A characteristic of Haplogroup N haplotypes is the b2/b3 deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y-chromosome. However, this deletion appears to have occurred independently on four different occasions. Thus this deletion should not be considered a unique event polymorphism that contributes to the definition of this branch of the Y-chromosome tree.

Y-DNA haplogroup N is predominantly found throughout Northern Eurasia. It is the most common lineage in Uralic speakers (Finns and Hungarians). The probable point of origin was Northern China or Mongolia, from which it spread both toward the Baltic and into Siberia. It is a common haplogroup in western Siberia.

References:

Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karlsson et al, Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-8, 2006. (Comments on paper from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog - fee for paper from www.nature.com/ejhg)
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.

Additional Resources:
Robert Andersen, N Y-DNA Haplogroup Project

Corrections/Additions made since 10 April 2006:

Contact Person for Haplogroup N: David Wilson

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