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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Renamed|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2005 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
� BR SRY10831.1 (SRY1532), M42, M94, M139, M299 (This category is also referred to as YxA.)
� � B M60, M181
� � CR M168, M294, P9
� � � C RPS4Y (M130), M216
� � � DE YAP (M1), M145, M203
� � � � D M174
� � � � E SRY4064 (SRY8299 or M40), M96, P29
� � � F P14, M89, M213
� � � � G M201
� � � � H M69
� � � � IJ S2, S22
� � � � � I M170, M258, P19
� � � � � J 12f2.1, M304, S6, S34, S35 (added)
� � � � K M9
� � � � � L M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295
� � � � � M M4, M5, M106, M186, M189, P35
� � � � � NO M214
� � � � � � N LLY22g, M231
� � � � � � O M175
� � � � � P 92R7, M45, M74, (N12), P27
� � � � � � Q M242, MEH2, P36
� � � � � � R M207 (UTY2), M306 (S1), S4, S8, S9
Y-DNA haplogroup descriptions are provided on each haplogroup page. The combined haplogroups are the only ones whose description appears on this page.
The BR haplogroup split off from haplogroup A 55,000 years before present (bp). It probably appeared in North East Africa. The CR haplogroup was the common ancestor of all people who migrated outside of Africa until recent times. The defining mutation occurred 31-55,000 years bp in North East Africa and is still most common in Africa today in Ethiopia and Sudan. The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in North East Africa and subsequently split into haplogroup E that spread to Europe and Africa and haplogroup D that rapidly spread along the coastline of India and Asia to North Asia. The IJ haplogroup characterizes part of the second wave of emigration from Africa that occurred via the Middle East 45,000 years bp and defines two branches I and J that emigrated northwards and eastwards into Europe. The J branch subsequently split again and contributed to the current North African population. The NO haplogroup appeared approximately 35,000-40,000 years bp in a region east of the Aral sea; subsequent branches spread to North Asia (N) and another branch (O) to South Asia via North India.
Recent Developments in Y-Short Tandem Repeat and Y-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Analysis. (pdf) Forensic Sciece Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, 100-111, 2003.
Hammer et al, Hierarchical Patterns of Global Human Y-Chromosome Diversity. (pdf) Molecular Biology and Evolution, 18:1189-1203, 2001.
Hammer et al, Population Structure of Y chromosome SNP Haplogroups in the United States and Forensic Implications for Constructing Y Chromosome STR Databases. Forensic Science International, (in press), 2005.
Jobling et al, The Human Y Chromosome: An Evolutionary Marker Comes of Age. Nature/Reviews/Genetics, 4:598-612, 2003.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Underhill et al, The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al, Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations. (pdf) Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361, November 2000.
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups. Genome Research: 12:339-348, 2002.
Corrections/Additions made since 10 April 2006:
Contact person for Haplogroup Main Tree: John McEwan
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