Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades - 2009
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 11 December 2009

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2008 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

G   M201, P257, U2, U3, U6, U7, U12, U17, U20, U21, U23, U33
       G*   -
       G1   M285, M342
             G1*   -
             G1a   P20
             G1b   P76
       G2   P287
             G2*   -
             G2a   L31/S149, P15, U5
                    G2a*   -
                    G2a1   P16
                          G2a1*   -
                          G2a1a   P18
                    G2a2   M286
                    G2a3   L30/S126, L32/S148/U8
                          G2a3*   -
                          G2a3a   M406
                                G2a3a*   -
                                G2a3a1   L14/S130/U16, L90/S133
                                G2a3a2   L184, L185
                          G2a3b   L141
                                G2a3b*   -
                                 G2a3b1   P303/S135, L140
                                       G2a3b1*   -
                                       G2a3b1a   U1
                                              G2a3b1a*   -
                                              G2a3b1a1   L13/S131/U13, L78
                                       G2a3b1b   L43/S147
                                              G2a3b1b*   -
                                              G2a3b1b1   L42/S146
                                       G2a3b1c   L139
                                 G2a3b2   L177
                    G2a4   L91
             G2b   M287
             G2c   M377
                    G2c*   -
                    G2c1   M283


Y-DNA haplogroup G is primarily a Middle Eastern, Caucasus Region, and Mediterranean haplogroup that occurs in northwestern Europe in only about 2% of males. The frequency is higher in southern Europe, amounting to approximately 8-10% of the population in Spain, Italy, Greece, and Turkey. Haplogroup G occurs most frequently in the Caucasus region where half of North Ossetian males are in G, as are about 30% of Georgians and Azerbaijanis.

The small numbers of haplogroup G in northwest Europe likely arrived there in part with the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and in part with episodic migrations within the last few thousand years. Some likely arrived with the Roman occupation. The relative contribution of these different sources is controversial, but the relative contribution probably varies in importance from place to place.

By far, the most common sub-group in western Europe is G2a. Haplogroup G2a has been resolved into several subgroups, the largest of which is G2a3-U8. Sub-groups G1 and G2c occur at almost an order of magnitude less frequently than G2a in western Europe. G1 is common in Iran (Regueiro, 2006), but uncommon in Europe. A large majority of European G2cs are Ashkenazi Jews, but so far G2c has been tested in only a small number of people in the Middle East and South Asia. Among Ashkenazi Jews overall, about 10% are in haplogroup G, including about 8% in G2c and 2% in G2a, along with small numbers in G1. About 20% of Moroccan Jews are in Haplogroup G. Other groups with a significant G frequency include Catalan-speaking northern Sardinians and the Druze, who are about 18% G2a. About one-third of Haplogroup G in Iran is in sub-group G1.

The founder of haplogroup G is thought to have lived about 30,000 years ago, probably in the northern part of the Middle East.


Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey et al, Y-SNP rs34134567 Defines a Large Subgroup of Haplogroup G2a-P15. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(2):149-150, 2008.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205214. 2008.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al, Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of the South and North Ossetians. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 68:588-599, 2004.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
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Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2009). Improved Resolution Haplogroup G Phylogeny in the Y Chromosome, Revealed by a Set of Newly Characterized SNPs. (pdf) PLoS One, 4:6, e5792, 2009.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.

Additional Resources:
Ray Banks, Administrator, Haplogroup G Project
Ted Kandell, Administrator, Haplogroup G2c Project

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2009:

Contact People for Haplogroup G: Phil Goff or Whit Athey

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