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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2008 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
� M* -
� M1 M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35
� � M1* -
� � M1a P34
� � � M1a* -
� � � M1a1 P51
� � � M1a2 P94
� � M1b P87
� � � M1b* -
� � � M1b1 M104/P22
� � � � M1b1* -
� � � � M1b1a M16
� � � � M1b1b M83
� M2 M353, M387
� � M2* -
� � M2a M177/SRY9138
� M3 P117, P118
Y-DNA haplogroup M reaches its known peak in Papua New Guinea, totaling one-third to two-thirds of population.
References:Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Hurles et al,
European Y-Chromosomal Lineages in Polynesians: A Contrast to the Population
Structure Revealed by mtDNA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1793-1806, 1998.
Hurles et al, Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples. Genetics, 160:289-303, January 2002.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al, Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes. Current Biology, Vol. 10, No. 20, September 2000.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2009:
Contact Person for Haplogroup M: Phil Goff
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