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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2008 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
P 92R7, M45, M74/N12, P27.1/P207,
P69, P226, P228, P230, P235, P237, P239, P240, P243, P244, P281, P282, P283, P284, P295
• P* -
• Q M242
• R M207/UTY2, M306/S1, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S8, S9
Y-DNA haplogroup P, an offshoot of Haplogroup NOP, originated in Central Asia some 35,000 years ago; sites in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and southern Siberia have been offered as the likely point of first appearance. Haplogroup P is best represented by its two immediate subclades, haplogroups Q and R, which expanded to become the dominant haplogroups in, respectively, the Americas and Europe.References:
Behar et al,
Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524-539, 2003.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Derenko et al, Contrasting patterns of Y-Chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions, Human Genetics 118: 591-604, 2006.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2009:
Contact Person for Haplogroup P: Charles Moore
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