Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades - 2012
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at
the bottom of the Main
Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 1 December 2012
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
G L116/S284, L154, L204, L240, L269,
L402, L519, L520, L521, L522,
L523, L605, L769, L770,
L836, L837, L1258, M201, P257/U6,
Page94/U17, S314/U2, U3,
U7, U12, U20, U21, U23, U33
G1 L833, M285, M342
G1a P20_1, P20_2, P20_3
G1a1 L201, L202, L203
G1b L830, L831, L832, L834, L835
G2 L79, L142.2, L156, P287
G2a L31/S149, P15, U5
G2a1a1 P16_1, P16_2
G2a1a1a P18_1, P18_2, P18_3
G2a1b2a L166, L167
G2a1c L30/S126, L32/S148/U8, L190, M485
G2a1c1a L14/Page57/S130/U16, L90/Page19/S133
G2a1c2a1a1 L13/S131/U13, L78/M527
G2a1c2a1a2a L1264, L1265, L1268
G2a1c2a1d L660, L662
G2a1c2b L177_1, L177_2, L177_3
G2b L72/S315, L183, M377
An Extended Version of G Tree with STR Marker Categories
created by Content Expert Ray Banks.
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution
criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple
confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
- L139 is located under L497. Listed 22 Jul 2009.
and L185 are located under M406. Listed 11 Dec 2009.
- L297 was found under L43. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L661 is located under L660 and L662. Listed 13 Oct 2011.
- L695 is located under L694. Listed 13 Oct 2011.
- L486 is found at approximately L497. Listed 26 April 2012.
- P76 is downstream of M285. Listed 5 August 2012.
- M287 is downstream of P287. Listed 5 August 2012.
- M426 is downstream from P303. Listed 24 August 2012.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples
and/or correct placement on the tree.
- L373, L374, L375, L376, L377, L378,
and L379 are located at approximately L14. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L496 is located at approximately P287. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L518 is located at approximately L140 but thought downstream of L497. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L524 is located at approximately M201. Listed 31 May 2011.
- Page99 is reported within M201. Listed 31 May 2011.
- Z1901 is located at approximately L497. Listed
14 February 2012.
- Page52.1 is located at approximately G-M201. Listed on 2 March 2012.
- Page25 is located under L14. Listed 18 June 2012.
- Z2047 is at approximately Z724. Listed 18 June 2012.
- L1257, L1259, and L1260 are equivalent to U1.
Listed 7 July 2012.
- L1256, L1261, L1262, L1269, L1270, and L1271 are
downstream from L13. Listed 7 July 2012.
- L654.2 is
at approximately U1 and upstream from L13. Listed 7 July 2012.
- Z1991, Z1992, Z1993, Z2003, Z2005, Z2006, Z2013, Z2014, Z2022, and
Z2024 are at approximately L13. Listed 7 July 2012.
- M461 is downstream from M406. Listed 24 August 2012.
- M547 is found at approximately L30. Listed 28 August 2012.
- L1323, L1324, L1325, L1326, L1327 and L1328 are
found at approximately M285. Listed 1 December 2012.
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Examples: P257/U6, L31/S149.
Y-DNA haplogroup G. Scholars have proposed dates ranging from
10,000 to 23,000 years ago for the origin of this group (Cinnioglu, Genographic Project,
Semino). They have also suggested various places in western Asia as the site
of origin. Other than origin information, a unitary concept of haplogroup G
has little practical importance because virtually all G men belong to G subgroups
that arose more recently and have differing geographical distributions.
G1 Haplogroup G1 is a much less
common form of G found in populations than is G2. All haplogroup G1 men so far
have the 12 value at marker DYS392 -- rarely seen in G except in G1 men (G
project data) G1 reaches parity with G2 only in parts of Iran reaching
there up to 5% of all men. G1 is far less common in Europe, North Africa
and Asia. (G Project data, Cinnioglu, Regueiro, & DYS392=12 G1
estimates from Adams, El-Sabai, Ferri, Ghiani, Heber, Lovrecic, Nasidze-YHRD
data from 3 studies, Rodriguez, Sengupta, Zalloua-2 studies). By exception,
two Ashkenazi Jewish G1 subgroups exist, and a pocket of G1a men is found
in Kazakhstan (Biro, G project data).
G2a1a All haplogroup G2a1a
men so far have the 10 value at marker DYS392 -- rarely seen in G except in
G2a1a men. G2a1a1/G2a1a1a is found in high percentages in the central
Caucasus Mountains area, and is rare elsewhere. Small
clusters are found among Ashkenazi Jews, some eastern Europeans and
among Maronite Christians in Lebanon (Nasidze data in YHRD database, G project, Haber data).
G2a1b Haplogroup G2a1b men are found scattered throughout southwest & southern Asia and,
though rare in Europe, reach observable levels in Corsica and Sardinia (Keller, G Project data). A double value
for DYS19 in G is found almost exclusively within G2a1b though men with the same double value will not be reported
as such. G2a1b2 includes Oetzi, the Iceman mummy preserved for over 5000 yrs. in the Italian Alps (Keller).
G2a1c1 G2a1c1 occurs in highest frequency in the eastern Mediterranean
area reaching up to 5% of all men. A high percentage of G2a1c1
men have a value of 21 at marker DYS390 which is rare in G otherwise.
G2a1c1 is more common in southern Europe than in northern Europe. A distinctive Ashkenazi
Jewish subgroup of G2a1c1 exists (King, G project & Cinnioglu
G2a1c1a1 This is the dominant G group in Europe (perhaps 80% of G samples)
and may reach up to about 7% of all men in a country but averages about 3%. A
high percentage of G2a1c1a1 samples form three major subgroups, DYS388=13
(Z725+), YCA=19,20 type of L13+ and DYS568=9 (Z1903+). One G2a1c1a1 subgroup
(U1+) is also confirmed in some frequency outside Europe only in
the Caucasus region, particularly in the northwest (G Project, Balanovsky, Rootsi data). North of the
European borders of the once Roman Empire, the prevalence of these three
G2a1c1a1 subgroups (and G in general) drops considerably, and the three subgroups
are found in noticeable amounts in almost all regions of the once Roman Empire
in Europe except among the Basques of Spain. An Ashkenazi Jewish cluster from
northeastern Europe comprises about half of the DYS568=9 subgroup, and this
Jewish subgroup represents an exception to usual European boundaries
mentioned. The connection of these three G2a1c1a1 subgroups to Sea Peoples,
Etruscans, Alans and Sarmatians and other groups who migrated to Europe is
widely debated (miscellaneous G2a1c1a1 data from Adams, Rootsi and over 2000 G2a1c1a1 samples in G project).
G2b Available G2b samples are either (a) those from Ashkenazi Jewish men from northeast Europe
who have a null value for marker DYS425 or (b) a small number of men from the Mediterranean areas & Armenia, and
more noticeably from Afghanistan, Pakistan and among Indian Pathans (Sengupta & G Project data).
Adams et al,
Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of
Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of
Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al,
The Place of the Basques in the European
Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of
Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey et al,
Y-SNP rs34134567 Defines a Large Subgroup of Haplogroup G2a-P15. (pdf)
Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(2):149-150, 2008.
Balanovsky et al,
Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al,
Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al,
Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People.
Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bertoncini et al,
The Dual Origin of Tati-speakers from Dagestan as Written in the Genealogy of Uniparental Variants.
(abstract) American Journal of Human Biology, Volume 24, Issue 4, pages 391-399, July/August 2012.
Biro et al,
Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Bosch et al,
Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers
except for the Isolated Aromuns.
Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al,
Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al,
A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
El Sibai et al,
Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland
Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Ghiani, et al,
Population data for
Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in
North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Haber et al,
of History, Geography, and Religion on Genetic Structure: the Maronites in
Lebanon, European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(3): 334-40, 2010.
Herrera et al,
Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists.
European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al,
New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008.
Keller et al,
New Insights into the Tyrolean Icemans Origin and Phenotype as Inferred by Whole-genome Sequencing.
Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1701, 2023.
King et al,
Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic
Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al,
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract)
Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205214. 2008.
Kivisild et al,
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste
Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al,
Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of the South and North Ossetians. (pdf)
Annals of Human Genetics, 68:588-599, 2004.
Nasidze et al,
MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics,
Nasidze et al,
Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the
Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Regueiro et al,
Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract)
Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi et al,
Distinguishing the Co-Ancestries of Haplogroup G Y-Chromosomes in the Populations of Europe and the Caucasus.
Abstract. European Journal of Human Genetics, (e-pub 16 May 2012 ahead of print), pp 1-8.
Semino et al,
Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al,
Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India
Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf)
American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction
of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome
and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2006).
Differentiation of sub-populations within Y-SNP haplogroup G, (poster citation - not available online)
Forensic Science Society, Autumn Conference, Wyboston, UK, November 3-5, 2006.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2009).
Improved Resolution Haplogroup G Phylogeny in the Y Chromosome, Revealed by a Set of Newly Characterized SNPs. (pdf)
PLoS One, 4:6, e5792, 2009.
Valone et al,
Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific
Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
Zalloua et al,
Genetic Traces of Historic Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the
Mediterranean, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83: 633-42, 2008.
Zalloua et al,
Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract)
The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Zhao et al,
Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract)
Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Project, Ray Banks,
Paul Givargidze, Rolf Langland, Whit Athey.
Haplogroup G Project, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup G2c Project, Ted Kandell.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:
- Moved L833 from Investigation onto the tree on 7 January 2012.
- Edited Z1903 Investigation; moved L297 from Investigation to Private; moved L223 from Investigation to tree on
7 January 2012.
- Added Z724, Z1901 on 14 February 2012.
- Moved L353_1, L353_2, Z1903 from Investigation to tree and added Z725 on 20 February 2012.
- Revised description for Z1901 in Investigation on 20 February 2012.
- Added Keller et al (2012) on 28 February 2012.
- Added Page52.1 at approximately G-M201. Listed on 2 March 2012.
- Moved L166, L167 fron Investigation to tree on 7 April 2012.
- Added Behar et al (2010), Bosch et al (2006), Zhau et al (2009) on 9 April 2012.
- Moved L486 from SNPs under Investigation to Private SNPs on 26 April 2012.
- Added S284, S285, S314, S315, S316, S317 on 27 April 2012.
- Added Page25, Z2047 on 18 June 2012.
- Updated G narrative on 26 June 2012.
- Added Rootsi et al (2012) on 27 June 2012.
- Added L654.2, L1256, L1257, L1258, L1259, L1260, L1261, L1262, L1263, L1264, L1265, L1266, L1268,
L1269, L1270, L1271, Z1991, Z1992, Z1993, Z2003, Z2005, Z2006, Z2013, Z2014, Z2024 to SNPs under Investigation on
7 July 2012.
- Added Z2022 to tree on 7 July 2012.
- Added text to haplogroup description on 5 August 2012.
- Moved M268, P76 from tree to Private on 5 August 2012.
- Moved Z2022 from tree to Investigation on 6 August 2012.
- Updated haplogroup description on 17 August 2012.
- Moved L1264, L1265, L1266, L1268 from Investigation to tree on 17 August 2012.
- Changed email address for Ray Banks on 24 August 2012.
- Added M426 to Private and M461 to Investigation on 24 August 2012.
- Added M485, M527, Page57 to tree and M547 to Investigation; moved L1263 from Investigation to tree on 28
- Adjusted subclade names in G2a because of the change for L149.1 on 15 September 2012.
- Haplogroup description is updated on 16 September 2012.
- Added Bertoncini et al (2012) on 8 November 2012.
- Added L1323, L1324, L1325, L1326, L1327, L1328 to Investigation; moved L519, L1258 from Investigation to tree
on 1 December 2012.
Contact Person for Haplogroup G: Ray H. Banks