Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades - 2012
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 1 December 2012

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2011 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

G   L116/S284, L154, L204, L240, L269, L402, L519, L520, L521, L522, L523, L605, L769, L770,
        L836, L837, L1258, M201, P257/U6, Page94/U17, S314/U2, U3, U7, U12, U20, U21, U23, U33
•    G*   -
•    G1   L833, M285, M342
•   •    G1*   -
•   •    G1a   P20_1, P20_2, P20_3
•   •    •    G1a*   *
•   •    •    G1a1   L201, L202, L203
•   •    G1b   L830, L831, L832, L834, L835
•    G2   L79, L142.2, L156, P287
•   •    G2*   -
•   •    G2a   L31/S149, P15, U5
•   •    •    G2a*   -
•   •    •    G2a1   L149.1
•   •    •   •    G2a1*   -
•   •    •   •    G2a1a   L293
•   •    •   •    •    G2a1a*   -
•   •    •   •    •    G2a1a1   P16_1, P16_2
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1a1*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1a1a   P18_1, P18_2, P18_3
•   •    •   •    G2a1b   L223
•   •    •   •    •    G2a1b*   -
•   •    •   •    •    G2a1b1   M286
•   •    •   •    •    G2a1b2   L91/S285
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1b2*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1b2a   L166, L167
•   •    •   •    G2a1c   L30/S126, L32/S148/U8, L190, M485
•   •    •   •    •    G2a1c*   -
•   •    •   •    •    G2a1c1   M406
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c1*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c1a   L14/Page57/S130/U16, L90/Page19/S133
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c1b   L645
•   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2   L141.1
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a   P303/Page108/S135
•   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1   L140/S316
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1a   U1
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1a*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1a1   L13/S131/U13, L78/M527
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1a1*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1a1a   L1263
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1a2   L1266
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1a2*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1a2a   L1264, L1265, L1268
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1b   L497/S317, L353_1, L353_2
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1b*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1b1   Z725
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1b1*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1b1a   L43/S147
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1b1a*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1b1a1   L42/S146
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1c   Z1903
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1c*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a1c1   Z724
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1c1*   -
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1c1a   L640
•   •    •   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2a1d   L660, L662
•   •    •   •    •   •    •    G2a1c2a2   L694
•   •    •   •    •   •    G2a1c2b   L177_1, L177_2, L177_3
•   •    G2b   L72/S315, L183, M377
•   •    •    G2b*   -
•   •    •    G2b1   M283

An Extended Version of G Tree with STR Marker Categories created by Content Expert Ray Banks.

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup G.  Scholars have proposed dates ranging from 10,000 to 23,000 years ago for the origin of this group (Cinnioglu, Genographic Project, Semino). They have also suggested various places in western Asia as the site of origin.  Other than origin information, a unitary concept of haplogroup G has little practical importance because virtually all G men belong to G subgroups that arose more recently and have differing geographical distributions.

G1 Haplogroup G1 is a much less common form of G found in populations than is G2. All haplogroup G1 men so far have the 12 value at marker DYS392 -- rarely seen in G except in G1 men (G project data)  G1 reaches parity with G2 only in parts of Iran reaching there up to 5% of all men. G1 is far less common in Europe, North Africa and Asia. (G Project data, Cinnioglu, Regueiro, & DYS392=12 G1 estimates from Adams, El-Sabai, Ferri, Ghiani, Heber, Lovrecic, Nasidze-YHRD data from 3 studies, Rodriguez, Sengupta, Zalloua-2 studies). By exception, two  Ashkenazi Jewish G1 subgroups exist, and a pocket of G1a men is found in Kazakhstan (Biro, G project data).

G2a1a  All haplogroup G2a1a men so far have the 10 value at marker DYS392 -- rarely seen in G except in G2a1a men.  G2a1a1/G2a1a1a is found in high percentages in the central Caucasus Mountains area, and is rare elsewhere.  Small clusters are found among Ashkenazi Jews, some eastern Europeans and among Maronite Christians in Lebanon (Nasidze data in YHRD database, G project, Haber data).

G2a1b Haplogroup G2a1b men are found scattered throughout southwest & southern Asia and, though rare in Europe, reach observable levels in Corsica and Sardinia (Keller, G Project data). A double value for DYS19 in G is found almost exclusively within G2a1b though men with the same double value will not be reported as such. G2a1b2 includes Oetzi, the Iceman mummy preserved for over 5000 yrs. in the Italian Alps (Keller).

G2a1c1 G2a1c1 occurs in highest frequency in the eastern Mediterranean area reaching up to 5% of all men.  A high percentage of G2a1c1 men have a value of 21 at marker DYS390 which is rare in G otherwise. G2a1c1 is more common in southern Europe than in northern Europe. A distinctive Ashkenazi Jewish subgroup of G2a1c1 exists (King, G project & Cinnioglu data).

G2a1c1a1 This is the dominant G group in Europe (perhaps 80% of G samples) and may reach up to about 7% of all men in a country but averages about 3%.  A high percentage of G2a1c1a1 samples form three major subgroups, DYS388=13 (Z725+), YCA=19,20  type of L13+ and DYS568=9 (Z1903+).  One G2a1c1a1 subgroup (U1+)  is also confirmed in some frequency outside Europe only in the Caucasus region, particularly in the northwest (G Project, Balanovsky, Rootsi data).  North of the European borders of the once Roman Empire, the prevalence of these three G2a1c1a1 subgroups (and G in general) drops considerably, and the three subgroups are found in noticeable amounts in almost all regions of the once Roman Empire in Europe except among the Basques of Spain. An Ashkenazi Jewish cluster from northeastern Europe comprises about half of the DYS568=9 subgroup, and this Jewish subgroup represents an exception to usual European boundaries mentioned.  The connection of these three G2a1c1a1 subgroups to Sea Peoples, Etruscans, Alans and Sarmatians and other groups who migrated to Europe is widely debated (miscellaneous G2a1c1a1 data from Adams, Rootsi and over 2000 G2a1c1a1 samples in G project).

G2b Available G2b samples are either (a) those from Ashkenazi Jewish men from northeast Europe who have a null value for marker DYS425 or (b) a small number of men from the Mediterranean areas & Armenia, and more noticeably from Afghanistan, Pakistan and among Indian Pathans (Sengupta & G Project data).

References:

Adams et al, The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey et al, Y-SNP rs34134567 Defines a Large Subgroup of Haplogroup G2a-P15. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(2):149-150, 2008.
Balanovsky et al, Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bertoncini et al, The Dual Origin of Tati-speakers from Dagestan as Written in the Genealogy of Uniparental Variants. (abstract) American Journal of Human Biology, Volume 24, Issue 4, pages 391-399, July/August 2012.
Biro et al, A Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Ghiani, et al, Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Haber et al, Influences of History, Geography, and Religion on Genetic Structure: the Maronites in Lebanon, European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(3): 334-40, 2010.
Herrera et al, Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists. European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Keller et al, New Insights into the Tyrolean Iceman’s Origin and Phenotype as Inferred by Whole-genome Sequencing. Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1701, 2023. Supplementary Information
King et al, The Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205–214. 2008.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al, Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of the South and North Ossetians. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 68:588-599, 2004.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Nasidze et al, Testing Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi et al, Distinguishing the Co-Ancestries of Haplogroup G Y-Chromosomes in the Populations of Europe and the Caucasus. Abstract. European Journal of Human Genetics, (e-pub 16 May 2012 ahead of print), pp 1-8.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2006). Differentiation of sub-populations within Y-SNP haplogroup G, (poster citation - not available online) Forensic Science Society, Autumn Conference, Wyboston, UK, November 3-5, 2006.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2009). Improved Resolution Haplogroup G Phylogeny in the Y Chromosome, Revealed by a Set of Newly Characterized SNPs. (pdf) PLoS One, 4:6, e5792, 2009.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49:4, July 2004.
Zalloua et al, Identifying Genetic Traces of Historic Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83: 633-42, 2008.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Project, Ray Banks, Paul Givargidze, Rolf Langland, Whit Athey.
Haplogroup G Project, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup G2c Project, Ted Kandell.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:

Contact Person for Haplogroup G: Ray H. Banks

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