Y-DNA Haplogroup Q and its Subclades - 2012
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 7 August 2012

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2011 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

Q   M242
�    Q*   -
�    Q1   P36.2, L232/S432, L273, L274
�   �    Q1*   -
�   �    Q1a   L472, L474, MEH2
�   �    �    Q1a*   -
�   �    �    Q1a1   M120, M265/N14
�   �    �    Q1a2   M25, M143
�   �    �    Q1a3   L56/S324, L57, L528, M346
�   �    �   �    Q1a3*   -
�   �    �   �    Q1a3a   L53/S326, L54, L55, L213, L331, L475, L476
�   �    �   �    �    Q1a3a*   -
�   �    �   �    �    Q1a3a1   M3
�   �    �   �    �   �    Q1a3a1*   -
�   �    �   �    �   �    Q1a3a1a   M19
�   �    �   �    �   �    Q1a3a1b   M194
�   �    �   �    �   �    Q1a3a1c   M199, P106, P292
�   �    �   �    �    Q1a3a2   L191
�   �    �   �    �    Q1a3a3   L330, L334
�   �    �   �    �   �    Q1a3a3*   -
�   �    �   �    �   �    Q1a3a3a   L329, L332, L333
�   �    �   �    �    Q1a3a4   L569, L570, L571
�   �    �   �    Q1a3b   M323
�   �    �   �    Q1a3c   L527, L529
�   �    Q1b   L275, L314
�   �    �    Q1b*   -
�   �    �    Q1b1   M378/Page100, L214, L215/Page82/S325
�   �    �   �    Q1b1*   -
�   �    �   �    Q1b1a   L245
�   �    �   �    �    Q1b1a*   -
�   �    �   �    �    Q1b1a1   L272.1

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After investigation these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree: either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup Q arose in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas. Today it is found in North Eurasia, with some exemplars in European populations. The Q1a3a1 sub-group is almost exclusively associated with Native American populations.


Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524-539, 2003.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Dulik et al, Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome Variation Provides Evidence for a Recent Common Ancestry between Native Americans and Indigenous Altaians. (pdf) The American Journal of Human Genetics, doi: 10.1016/ajhg.2011.12.014, 2012.
Geppert et al, Hierarchical Y-SNP Assay to Study the Hidden Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship of Native Populations in South America, Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6 Oct 2010. [Epub ahead of print]
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Malhi et al, Distribution of Y Chromosomes among Native North Americans: A Study of Athapaskan Population History American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 137:412-24, 2008.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Underhill et al, Detection of Numerous Y Chromosome Biallelic Polymorphisms by Denaturing High-performance Liquid Chromatography. (Abstract) Genome Research, 7(10):996-1005, 1997 Oct.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Y-chromosome DNA Haplogroup Q, Rebekah Canada.
American Indian Q1a3a: the Q-M3 Haplogroup Project, Ana Oquendo Pab�n.
American Indian DNA Project, Glinda Seabaugh.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2012:

Contact person for Haplogroup Q: Charles Moore

Back to Main Page
Back to Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Back to SNP Index
Back to Papers/Presentations Cited
Back to Glossary
Back to Listing Criteria

Copyright 2012. International Society of Genetic Genealogy. All Rights Reserved.