MtDNA testing comparison chart
For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.
This chart is provided for informational purposes only. Edits/additions can be made upon ISOGG member request and subject to approval. Please submit additions, corrections/updates to .
|Company name||23andMe||AncestryDNA|| BritainsDNA ScotlandsDNA IrelandsDNA YorkshiresDNA
|Family Tree DNA||Full Genomes Corporation||Genebase||Genographic Project v2 (GenoChip)||Oxford Ancestors|
|Method||Chip-based genotyping||Sanger sequencing?||Chip-based genotyping||Next generation sequencing||Next generation sequencing||Sanger sequencing?||Chip-based genotyping||Sanger sequencing?|
|Main purpose of test|| Health: carrier status, disease risks, drug response
Ancestry: DNA Relatives, global origins, ancestral haplogroups
|Genealogy||Deep ancestry||Genealogy||Y-SNP discovery||Genealogy||Deep ancestry||Deep ancestry|
|HVR1 only||Not available||Not available||Not available||No longer available||Not available||$119||Not available||£199 ($319)|
|HVR1+HVR2||Not available||$179||Not available||$49||Not available||$238||Not available||Not available|
|HVR1 bases tested||Selected branch-defining SNPs||16000-16569||Selected branch-defining SNPs||16001-16569||Not applicable||16001-16520||Selected branch-defining SNPs||16001-16400|
|HVR2 bases tested||Selected branch-defining SNPs||1-390||Selected branch-defining SNPs||1-574||Not applicable||1-400||Selected branch-defining SNPs||Not tested|
|Entire mtDNA genome (HVR1, HVR2 + coding region = 16569 bases)||No||No||No||$199||$999||$339 (Available as an upgrade only)||No||No|
|Haplogroup SNP test (for HVR1+HVR2 tests only)||Not applicable||No||Not applicable||Included in the cost of the HVR1+HVR2 test||Not applicable||$89||Not applicable||Yes|
|Chip test||$99 for the lifetime of the platform||Not applicable||From $265 US (£170 or €210) for females||Not applicable||Not applicable||Not applicable||$199.95||Not applicable|
|Number of SNPs tested (for chip tests only)||2737||Not applicable||Over 3000||Not applicable||Not applicable||Not applicable||11,378 probes covering 3281 positions on the mtDNA genome||Not applicable|
|Shipping charges||$14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the US; $79.95 for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $66.95 and $94.95. See shipping DNA kits for further info.||$9.95 per kit in the US; costs needed for other countries||Included in the cost of the kit in the UK; £13 for the Republic of Ireland (includes return courier service)||$9.95 for USA and international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)||$25 for the US; $39 for international orders||?||None for the US; $10 for Canada; $20 for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries||?|
|International product availability||56 countries||?||Worldwide||Worldwide||Worldwide||Worldwide?||Worldwide?||Worldwide?|
|DNA sample storage||Yes, indefinitely||Example||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, for a miminum of 25 years||No, but the option might be added in the future||Yes, for 25 years||Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used||No|
|Phylotree Build||Build 7||?||?||Build 14||Build 15||?||Build 13 or 14||?|
|Raw data/FASTA file provided||Yes||?||?||Yes||?||?||No||?|
|Projects supported||No||Yes||No||Yes||No||No||Yes, if the free transfer to FTDNA is used||No|
|Online community or forum||Active online community for 23andMe members, including demo accounts||Yes||No||Public FTDNA forums||Results can be discussed in the private Full Genomes Facebook group||?||No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the website for others to view, so add your contact information to them.||?|
|Genealogical matching database||For autosomal DNA only||Yes||No||Yes||No||Yes||No||?|
|Size of mtDNA matching database||Not applicable||Not known||Not applicable||Over 168,000||Not applicable||Not known||Not applicable||Not known|
|Sponsored public database||No||?||No||Yes, Mitosearch (for HVR1+HVR2 results) and mtDNACommunity (for full sequence results)||No||No||No||No|
|Additional DNA testing options available from this company||No||Yes, autosomal genome wide scans and limited Y chromosome STR testing||Yes, Y-SNP testing, biogeographical analysis and red hair test||Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, single SNP tests, and autosomal genome wide scans||No||Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, some Y-SNP testing||No||Yes, Limited Y-STR testing|
|Lead scientists in the company||Joanna Mountain, Brian Naughton, Steve Lemon||Ken Chahine, Catherine Ball, Scott Woodward, Jake Byrnes||James Wilson||Connie Bormans, David Mittelman||?||Spencer Wells||Bryan Sykes|
|Outside consultants for the company||Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard||Philip Awadalla, Jeffrey Botkin, Carlos Bustamante, Mark Daly, John Novembre, Brenna Henn||Not applicable||Michael Hammer, Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Theodore Schurr, Alan Redd||Greg Magoon||?||Connie Bormans, Eran Elhaik, Thomas Krahn, Elliott Greenspan||Not applicable|
|Ownership||Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates||As of January 2013 owned by the European equity firm Permira||The Moffat Partnership Directors include Alistair Moffat and James Wilson|| Gene by Gene
Managing partners Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld
|Privately held||?|| National Geographic
is a "non-profit scientific and educational society"
| Oxford Ancestors Ltd|
Directors: Bryan Sykes, Susan Foden and William James
|Lab(s) used|| National Genetics Institute
(a subsidiary of LabCorp), Los Angeles, California
|?||Source Bioscience, Nottingham, England||Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas||BGI China||Genetrack Biolabs||Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas||Oxford Ancestors Laboratory, Kidlington, Oxfordshire|
|Method for collecting the sample||Saliva sample (about 1 cc)||Cheek swab||Saliva sample||Cheek swab||Saliva sample or cheek swab||?||Cheek swab||?|
1390 Shorebird Way
360 W 4800 N
| The Moffat Partnership Limited
St Dunstans House
Melrose TD6 9RU
| Family Tree DNA
1445 North Loop West
| Full Genomes Corporation Inc
2275 Research Blvd
| Genebase Systems Inc
BC V5R 5T5
| The Genographic Project
1145 17th St. N.W.
Washington, D. C.
| Oxford Ancestors|
PO BOX 841
Oxfordshire OX1 9LJ
|Phone number||Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back||800-958-9124 (best for DNA related questions) or 800-262-3787 (in the U. S.); 0800-404-9723 (UK); 800-958-9073 (Canada); 800-252-838 (Australia)||0845 872 7634||713-868-1438||All communications are via e-mail||1-604-714-6357||888-557-4450 (in the US or Canada) or 713-868-1807||0845 5438060|
|Year founded||2006||2007 (2001)||2011 (2004)||2000||2012||2005 (1998)||2005||2000|
- The companies now trading as BritainsDNA, ScotlandsDNA, IrelandsDNA and YorkshiresDNA were formerly known as Ethnoancestry. The Chromo 2 test was launched in June 2013.
- Family Tree DNA also processes tests for a number of affiliate companies: African DNA, iGENEA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin and DNA Worldwide. Participants who join Family Tree DNA's database from these companies will have kit numbers that begin with 'A' from African DNA, 'E' from iGENEA, 'M' from DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, and 'U' from DNA Worldwide. National Geographic Genographic kit transfers begin with 'N'. Family Tree DNA acquired DNA Heritage in April 2011. DNA Heritage customers were given the option of transferring their results to the FTDNA database. DNA Heritage kit numbers begin with the letter 'H'.
- The Geno 2.0 test was launched in the fall of 2012.
- FTDNA discontinued the HVR1 test in May 2013
- Exchange rate checked on 8 November 2013
- This test is known as the full mitochondrial sequence (FMS) test. It was previously referred to as the full genomic sequence (FGS) or mega test.
- The Full Genome test is primarily a full Y-chromosome sequence test which reports on all known Y-SNPs plus an unpredictable number of novel Y-SNPs and 300 Y-STRs. The full mtDNA sequence is included in the test as a bonus, and provides 95% or greater coverage of the mt genome depending on the sample.
- This test is only available as an upgrade to Genebase customers who have already taken the HVR1+HVR2 test.
- Editorial Staff. "Are the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups predicted or confirmed?" Family Tree DNA Learning Center, Gene by Gene. Retrieved 2014-15-05.
- The mtDNA haplogroup SNP backbone test examines a panel of 20 coding region SNPs For a list of the 20 SNPs tested see the tutorial entiteld [http://www.genebase.com/learning/article/37 Which markers are tested in the mtDNA SNP backbone test panel?
- The Standard mtDNA test for females looks at around 300 SNPs and costs $265 US (£170 or €210). The Chromo 2 mtDNA test for females looks at over 3000 mt SNPs and costs $299 US (£189 or €229). Males who wish to purchase one of the company's two Y-SNP tests can pay an additional $40 (£30 or €40) for an mtDNA analysis. The mtDNA test can also be purchased at a discount as part of the Chromo Complete analysis which includes autosomal DNA and a red hair test. Currency conversions extracted from the BritainsDNA website in June 2013.
- The Genographic Project's Geno 2.0 test uses a custom-designed Illumina chip which tests 3,281 mt SNPs, 12,064 Y-SNPs and over 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosomal Ancestry Informative Markers.
- Editorial Staff. "Shipping DNA tests worldwide". Family Tree DNA Learning Center. Gene by Gene. https://www.familytreedna.com/learn/ftdna/shipping-dna-tests-to-international-destinations/. Retrieved 2014-5-15.
- The mtDNA tree is maintained by Phylotree. The current version is Build 15.
- About the Family Tree DNA database Family Tree DNA website. Accessed 9 November 2013.
- Beta-testing is also being done at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) but they have not as yet been confirmed as a sequencing provider.
- In 2007, Ancestry.com acquired Relative Genetics.
- The company was founded in 2004 as Ethnoancestry, and relaunched as ScotlandsDNA in 2011. The trade names BritainsDNA, IrelandsDNA and YorkshiresDNA were added in 2012.
- Genebase launched in 2005. Genetrack Biolabs launched in 1998. (http://www.genebase.com/about/?p=3)
- Mitochondrial DNA testing at a new low price by Debbie Kennett, Cruwys News blog, 10 May 2013.
- Before You Buy
- Mitochondrial DNA portal
- Mitochondrial DNA tests
- List of mtDNA haplogroup projects
- mtDNA tools
23andMe, AncestryDNA, BritainsDNA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, Family Tree DNA, Full Genomes Corporation, iGENEA, Genebase, IrelandsDNA, National Geographic Genographic, Oxford Ancestors, ScotlandsDNA and YorkshiresDNA are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.