MtDNA testing comparison chart

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This mtDNA testing comparison chart provides comparative information on the mitochondrial DNA tests offered by the major genetic genealogy testing companies.

For background information on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy and and Choosing a DNA testing company.

For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.

This chart is provided for informational purposes only. Edits/additions can be made upon ISOGG member request and subject to approval. Please submit additions, corrections/updates to .

Company name 23andMe BritainsDNA ScotlandsDNA IrelandsDNA YorkshiresDNA CymruDNAWales
Chromo2 Complete test[1]
Family Tree DNA[2] Full Genomes Corporation Genebase Genographic Project Geno 2.0 Next Generation test[3] Oxford Ancestors
Method Chip-based genotyping Chip-based genotyping Next generation sequencing 2000x coverage[4] Next generation sequencing 50x coverage Sanger sequencing? Chip-based genotyping Sanger sequencing?
Main purpose of test Health: carrier status, disease risks, drug response (Canada, UK and Ireland only at this time)
Ancestry: DNA Relatives, global origins, ancestral haplogroups
Deep ancestry Genealogy Y-SNP discovery Genealogy Deep ancestry Anthropological testing: patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups; biogeographical analysis
HVR1 only Not available Not available No longer available[5] Not available $119 Not available £199 ($312)[6]
HVR1+HVR2 Not available Not available $69 Not available $189 Not available Not available
HVR1 bases tested Selected branch-defining SNPs Selected branch-defining SNPs 16001-16569 Not applicable 16001-16520 Selected branch-defining SNPs 16001-16400
HVR2 bases tested Selected branch-defining SNPs Selected branch-defining SNPs 1-574 Not applicable 1-400 Selected branch-defining SNPs Not tested
Entire mtDNA genome (HVR1, HVR2 + coding region = 16569 bases) No No $199[7] $999[8] $528 No No
Haplogroup SNP test (for HVR1+HVR2 tests only) Not applicable Not applicable Included in the cost of the HVR1+HVR2 test[9] Not applicable Included in the cost of the HVR1 + HVR2 test Not applicable Yes
Chip test $99 for the lifetime of the platform in the US (ancestry only; health reports discontinued in November 2013); CAD $199 or £125 for health and ancestry reports (Canada, Britain and Ireland only at this time) $369 US (£220 or €269) for females; $399 US (£250 or €309) for males[10] Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable $199.95 US (£127) [11] Not applicable
Number of mtDNA SNPs tested (for chip tests only) 2737 Over 3000 Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable ~4000 positions on the mtDNA genome[12] Not applicable
Shipping charges $14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the US; $79.95 for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $66.95 and $94.95. See shipping DNA kits for further info. Included in the cost of the kit in the UK; £13 for the Republic of Ireland (includes return courier service) $9.95 for USA and international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)[13] $25 for the US; $39 for international orders Regular delivery, approximately 7 to 10 business days - $10.00 USD. Express delivery, 1 to 2 business days - $25.00 USD None for the US; $10 for Canada; $20 for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries  ?
International product availability 56 countries Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide? Worldwide?
DNA sample storage Yes, indefinitely Yes, indefinitely Yes, for a miminum of 25 years No, but the option might be added in the future Yes, for 25 years Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used No
Phylotree Build[14] Build 7  ? Build 14 Build 15  ? Build 13 or 14  ?
Raw data/FASTA file provided Yes  ? Yes  ?  ? No  ?
Projects supported No No Yes No No Yes, if the free transfer to FTDNA is used No
Online community or forum Active online community for 23andMe members, including demo accounts No Public FTDNA forums Results can be discussed in the private Full Genomes Facebook group  ? No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the website for others to view, so add your contact information to them.  ?
Genealogical matching database For autosomal DNA only No Yes No Yes No  ?
Size of mtDNA matching database Not applicable Not applicable ~ 200,000[15] Not applicable Not known Not applicable Not known
Sponsored public database No No Yes, Mitosearch (for HVR1+HVR2 results) and mtDNACommunity (for full sequence results) No No No No
Additional DNA testing options available from this company No Yes, Y-SNP testing, biogeographical analysis and red hair test Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, single SNP tests, and autosomal genome wide scans No Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, some Y-SNP testing No Yes, Limited Y-STR testing
Lead scientists in the company Joanna Mountain, Steve Lemon James Wilson Michael Hammer, Connie Bormans  ? Spencer Wells Bryan Sykes
Outside consultants for the company Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard[16] Not applicable Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Spencer Wells[17] Greg Magoon  ? Connie Bormans, Eran Elhaik, Thomas Krahn, Elliott Greenspan Not applicable
Ownership Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates The Moffat Partnership Directors include Alistair Moffat and James Wilson Gene by Gene
Managing partners Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld
Privately held  ? National Geographic
is a "non-profit scientific and educational society"
Oxford Ancestors Ltd
Directors: Bryan Sykes, Susan Foden and William James
Lab(s) used National Genetics Institute
(a subsidiary of LabCorp), Los Angeles, California
Source Bioscience, Nottingham, England Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas BGI China[18] Genetrack Biolabs Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas Oxford Ancestors Laboratory, Kidlington, Oxfordshire
Method for collecting the sample Saliva sample (about 1 cc) Saliva sample Cheek swab Saliva sample or cheek swab Cheek swab Cheek swab  ?
Address 23andMe
1390 Shorebird Way
Mountain View
CA 94043
The Moffat Partnership Limited
St Dunstans House
High Street
Melrose TD6 9RU
Family Tree DNA
1445 North Loop West
Suite 820
TX 77008
Full Genomes Corporation Inc
2275 Research Blvd
Suite 500
MD 20850
Genebase Systems Inc
200-2806 Kingsway
BC V5R 5T5
The Genographic Project
1145 17th St. N.W.
Washington, D. C.
Oxford Ancestors
PO BOX 841
Oxfordshire OX1 9LJ
Contact email email FTDNA Contact Form email email email email
Phone number Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back 0845 872 7634 713-868-1438 All communications are via e-mail 1-604-714-6357 888-557-4450 (in the US or Canada) or 713-868-1807 0845 5438060
Year founded 2006 2011 (2004)[19] 2000 2012 2005 (1998)[20] 2005 2000


  1. The companies now trading as BritainsDNA, ScotlandsDNA, IrelandsDNA, YorkshiresDNA and CymruDNAWales were formerly known as Ethnoancestry. The Chromo2 test was launched in June 2013.
  2. Family Tree DNA also processes tests for a number of affiliate companies: African DNA, iGENEA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin and DNA Worldwide. Participants who join Family Tree DNA's database from these companies will have kit numbers that begin with 'A' from African DNA, 'E' from iGENEA, 'M' from DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, and 'U' from DNA Worldwide. National Geographic Genographic kit transfers begin with 'N'. Family Tree DNA acquired DNA Heritage in April 2011. DNA Heritage customers were given the option of transferring their results to the FTDNA database. DNA Heritage kit numbers begin with the letter 'H'.
  3. The Geno 2.0 test was launched in the fall of 2012. Geno 2.0 Next Generation went on sale in August 2015.
  4. Canada RA. How do you perform mtDNA mitochondrial DNA) tests? FAQ, Family Tree DNA Learning Center, 1 January 2014
  5. FTDNA discontinued the HVR1 test in May 2013
  6. Exchange rate checked on 21 August 2015
  7. This test is known as the full mitochondrial sequence (FMS) test. It was previously referred to as the full genomic sequence (FGS) or mega test.
  8. The Full Genome test is primarily a full Y-chromosome sequence test which reports on all known Y-SNPs plus an unpredictable number of novel Y-SNPs and 300+ Y-STRs. The full mtDNA sequence is included in the test as a bonus, and provides 95% or greater coverage of the mt genome depending on the sample.
  9. Editorial Staff. "Are the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups predicted or confirmed?" Family Tree DNA Learning Center, Gene by Gene. Retrieved 2014-15-05.
  10. mtDNA testing is not available as a standalone product but is included in the Chromo2 test. The male test is more expensive because it includes Y-SNPs. Currency conversions extracted from the BritainsDNA website in August 2015.
  11. The Genographic Project's Geno 2.0 Next Generation test uses a custom-designed Illumina Express chip which tests around 750,000 markers, including around 4000 mtDNA SNPs, and around 20,000 Y-SNPs. The full specifications for the test are not yet available.
  12. The original Geno 2.0 test had 11,378 probes covering 3281 positions on the mtDNA genome.
  13. Editorial Staff. "Shipping DNA tests worldwide". Family Tree DNA Learning Center. Gene by Gene. Retrieved 2014-5-15. 
  14. The mtDNA tree is maintained by Phylotree. The current version is Build 16.
  15. About the Family Tree DNA database Family Tree DNA website. Accessed 9 November 2013.
  16. 23andMe Scientific Advisory Board
  17. Who's who at Family Tree DNA
  18. Beta-testing is also being done at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) but they have not as yet been confirmed as a sequencing provider.
  19. The company was founded in 2004 as Ethnoancestry, and relaunched as ScotlandsDNA in 2011. The trade names BritainsDNA, IrelandsDNA and YorkshiresDNA were added in 2012.
  20. Genebase launched in 2005. Genetrack Biolabs launched in 1998. (

See also

Further reading



23andMe, BritainsDNA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, Family Tree DNA, Full Genomes Corporation, iGENEA, Genebase, IrelandsDNA, National Geographic Genographic, Oxford Ancestors, ScotlandsDNA and YorkshiresDNA are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.