Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its Subclades - 2007
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 17 October 2007

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Renamed 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2006 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

K   M9
       K*   -
       K1    M353, M387
             K1*   -
             K1a   M177/SRY9138
       K2   M70, M184/USP9Y+3178, M193, M272
             K2*   -
             K2a   M320
       K3   M147
       K4   P60
       K5   M230
             K5*   -
             K5a   M254
                    K5a*   -
                    K5a1   M226
       K6   P79
       K7   P117
       L    M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295
       M    M4, M5, M106, M186, M189, P35
       NO   M214
             N    LLY22g, M231
             O    M175
       P    92R7, M45, M74/N12, P27

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup K is an old lineage whose origins were probably in southwestern Asia. At present this group contains two distinct classes of sub-groups: (1) major groups L to R (refer to the main tree at Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree and (2) minor groups K* and K1 to K7 which do not have any of the SNPs defining the major groups. These groups are found at low frequencies in various parts of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
K1 is found at low frequencies in Fiji and the Solomon Islands.
K2 is found at low frequencies throughout Europe and in parts of the Middle East, North Africa, and West Africa. A famous person of the K2 subclade was Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States (1801-09).
K5 is a major haplogroup in the highlands of mainland Papua New Guinea where it is found at frequencies of around 50% in some populations and is also present at lower frequencies in adjacent islands of Indonesia and Melanesia.

References:

Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524539, (2003).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Hudjashov G, Peopling of Sahul: Evidence from mtDNA and Y-Chromosome. Thesis (M.SC.) University of Tartu, Estonia, 2006.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochrondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.

Additional Resources:
Gareth Henson, The Y-DNA Haplogroup K2 Project

Corrections/Additions made since 20 December 2006:

Contact Person for Haplogroup K: Gareth Henson

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