Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart
From ISOGG Wiki
Autosomal DNA testing for genetic genealogy purposes is provided by the following five companies: 23andMe, AncestryDNA, MyHeritage, Family Tree DNA and Living DNA. For background material on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy and Choosing a DNA testing company.
For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.
|This autosomal DNA testing comparison chart has been compiled by ISOGG member Tim Janzen. The chart is provided for informational purposes only. Additions made upon ISOGG member request.|
Please submit additions, corrections/updates to .
|Company||23andMe||Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder test||Ancestry.com's AncestryDNA test||MyHeritage||Living DNA|
|Primary purpose for which the test was designed||Medical
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
|Price (as of January 2021)||US: $99 for the Ancestry and Traits service; $199 for the Health and Ancestry service; $499 for the VIP Health and Ancestry service. Canada: CAD $149 Ancestry and Traits; $249 Health and Ancestry. UK: £79 Ancestry and Traits; £149 Health and Ancestry. Europe: €99 Ancestry and Traits; €169 Health and Ancestry. International: US $99 Ancestry and Traits. Health reports are not available in all countries. Check local websites for details and pricing.||$79 for the lifetime of the platform||US: $69. UK: £79. Australia and New Zealand: AUS $149.00. Canada: CAD $149. Check local AncestryDNA websites for prices in other countries. An Ancestry subscription is required to access some features. A next-generation sequencing Ancestry Health test is available in the US only for $179.||Ancestry test: $69 (US); £75 (UK). Health and ancestry test $199 (US)||Ancestry: $99 (US); €99 (Europe), £99 (UK). Ancestry and wellbeing: $179 (US); €179 (Europe), £179 (UK)|
|Shipping charges||$9.95 in the US for the first kit (includes return shipping) and $5 per kit for each additional kit shipped to the same address; CAD $19.95 for Canada; £9.99 for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $39.99 and $127.99. See 23andMe international availability for further details.||$9.95 for the USA and for international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)||$9.95 per kit; £10 UK and Ireland standard shipping and £20 expedited shipping (includes prepaid return postage); AUS $29.99 Australia and New Zealand; CAD $19.95 Canada. Check local AncestryDNA websites for shipping charges for other countries.||$12 in the United States; £12 in the UK||$9.95 (US), €12.95 (Europe), £9.95 (UK)|
|International product availability||56 countries (health reports only available in selected countries). See the Customer Care article What countries do you ship to? for a list of countries.||Worldwide (except Sudan and Iran)||United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. The AncestryDNA test was launched in an additional 29 countries in February 2016. For current list of countries see Countries where Ancestry is available||All countries except Israel, Iran, Libya, Sudan, Somalia, North Korea, Lebanon, and Syria||Worldwide|
|Method for collecting the DNA sample||saliva sample (about 1 cc)||cheek swab||saliva sample (about 1/2 cc)||cheek swab||cheek swab|
|DNA sample storage||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, for a minimum of 25 years||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, indefinitely|
|Means of contacting people who share matching segments||Contact may be made after seeing your list of matches in DNA Relatives; the matches must be willing to share genomes with you if you are to see what segments you share with your matches||E-mail addresses of all matches are available||Contact can be made through Ancestry.com’s messaging system||Contact can be made through MyHeritage's messaging system||Contact can be made through Living DNA's messaging system|
|Average responsiveness of matches||Low||Medium||Low||Medium||Medium|
|Average level of genealogical knowledge of matches||Low||Medium||Medium||Medium||Medium|
|GEDCOM file upload allowed||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Upload of raw data file allowed from other companies||No||Yes, but 23andMe Version 3, 4, and 5 files (c. November 2010 to current), MyHeritage and Ancestry.com files only||No||Yes, from 23andMe, FTDNA's Family Finder, Ancestry.com, Living DNA and WeGene||Yes, from 23andMe, FTDNA's Family Finder, Ancestry.com, and MyHeritage DNA|
|Upload of raw data file allowed by GEDmatch into the GEDmatch database||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|SNP chip used for testing||Customized Illumina GSA chip||Customized Illumina GSA chip||Customized Illumina chip||Illumina GSA chip||Affymetrix Axiom microarray (Sirius)|
|Number of autosomal SNPs tested||630,132||612,272||637,639||576,157||683,503|
|Number of Y chromosome SNPS||3733||None||1691 (labeled as chromosome 24)||3495||34,216|
|Number of X chromosome SNPS||16,530||16,271||28,892 (labeled as chromosome 23), plus 440 SNPs labeled as chromosome 25 that are either from chromosome X or from the pseudoautosomal regions of the Y chromosome||29,694||15,028|
|Number of mitochondrial DNA SNPS||4318||179||263 (labeled as chromosome 26)||none||3982|
|Number of people in the database (as of 13 Aug 2023)||14,000,000||1,574,253||23,000,000||7,200,000||300,000|
|Source for number of people in the database||25 May 2023 23andMe financial summary||6 July 2023 e-mail from Katy Rowe providing database size as of 30 June 2023||3 Mar 2023 presentation by Deb Liu at RootsTech||13 Aug 2023 MyHeritage website||4 Jan 2021 e-mail from David Nicholson to Tim Janzen|
|Medically related SNP data included in data||Yes||Yes, but about 3000 medically related SNPs have been removed||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Download of raw data file allowed||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Information about the matching segments shared with customers and available for download||Yes (if the match is willing to share genomes)||Yes for all matches||Only the total number of shared segments, the total cMs shared, and the length of the longest share segment is provided. None of this information is available for download.||Yes for all matches||Only the total cMs shared|
|Chromosome browser available for comparison of shared segments||Yes, using the DNA comparison tool associated with DNA Relatives||Yes, using the Chromosome Browser tool||No||Yes, on the Review DNA Match page||No|
|Chromosome browser can be adjusted to different thresholds for matching segments||No||Yes, with thresholds of 1 cM, 5 cM, 7 cM, and 10 cM||No||No||No|
|Maximum number of comparisons that can be done at a time using the chromosome browser||5||7||None||7||None|
|Criteria for matching segments||Option 1: 9 cMs and at least 700 SNPs for one half-identical region; Option 2: 5 cMs and 700 SNPs with at least two half-identical regions being shared||Option 1: 9 cMs and 500 SNPs for one half-identical region; Option 2: 7.7 cMs for the first half-identical region and a total of at least 20 cMs (including the shorter matching HIRs between 1 cM and 7 cMs); Option 3: 5.5 cMs and at least 500 SNPs for the first half-identical region for about 1% of customers who come from specific non-European populations||6 cMs per segment before the Timber algorithm is applied and a total of at least 8 cMs after Timber is applied||8 cM for the first matching segment and at least 6 cMs for the 2nd matching segment; 12 cM for the first matching segment in people whose ancestry is at least 50% Ashkenazi Jewish||9.46 cMs for the first segment|
|Information about the start and stop positions of matching segments||Start and stop positions are not rounded||Start and stop positions are rounded to the nearest complete block of 100 SNPs||Not Provided||Start and stop positions are not rounded||Not provided|
|Information reported about the lengths of matching segments||Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest 100,000th cM||Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a cM||Only provided for the longest matching segment||Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest tenth of a cM||Only total number of shared cMs is provided|
|Information provided regarding the number of SNPs in each matching segment||Yes||Yes||No||Yes||No|
|Information about matching segments on the X chromosome reported||Yes||Yes||No||No||No|
|Criteria for matching segments on the X chromosome||For half-IBD segments: Male vs male: 200 SNPs, 1 cM; male vs female: 600 SNPs, 6 cMs; female vs female: 1200 SNPs, 6 cMs; For full-IBD segments: 500 SNPs, 5 cMs||1 cM and 500 SNPs for both males and females; matches must already meet the autosomal DNA matching criteria||Not applicable||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Information about mitochondrial DNA matches reported||No||No||No||No||No|
|Integrated genealogy database available to which customers may link||No||No||No||No, but MyHeritage owns Geni.com, an integrated database||No|
|Biogeographical ancestry analysis||Yes, using the Ancestry Composition feature||Yes, using the myOrigins and the ancient Origins features||Yes, using the Ethnicity Estimate feature||Yes, using the Ethnicity Estimate feature||Yes, using the Ancestry feature|
|Chromosomes painted according to ethnic or regional ancestry as part of the biogeographical ancestry analysis||Yes, using Ancestry Composition's Chromosome View||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Overall accuracy and sophistication of the biogeographical ancestry analysis rated on a 1-10 scale with 10 being excellent and 1 being poor||Overall rating: 7
The Ancestry Composition feature offers a map view which displays one's ancestral components from various regions of the world as of 500 years ago, a split view for those who also have one or both parents who have been tested by 23andMe, and a breakdown by chromosone. Three settings are available: conservative, standard, and speculative. Overall accuracy is reasonably good, but predictions in Europe are still not optimal, particularly in the speculative mode. Ancestry Finder provides a breakdown of one's ancestry by country.
|Overall rating: 3.5
The myOrigins analysis is much improved over FTDNA's previous Population Finder analysis. However, it still lacks specificity, particularly for Europe. No chromosome painting feature is available.
|Overall rating: 6
The Genetic Community feature indicates which populations or ethnic groups that have existed within the past 150 to 400 years have contributed at least 4% of your autosomal DNA.
|Overall rating: 5
The Ethnicity Estimate generally overestimates the English ancestral component for people whose ancestors were from continental Europe.
|Overall rating: 6|
The Ethnicity Estimate rating for the United Kingdom is 9 and the rating is 4 for the rest of the world.
|Phased data used for determining matching segments||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Phased segments linked to specific ancestors||No||No||No||No||No|
|Average number of autosomal SNPs with discrepant data using two parent/one child trio datasets||About 335||About 210 to 220||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|Option available to confirm known genealogical relationships between matches||Yes||Yes||DNA matches can be linked to people in the Ancestry family tree. That adds a DNA icon to the person in the tree view and a tree icon in both the DNA match list and the profile. The icons cross-link between the match and the tree.||No||No|
|Special features||Ancestry Composition, Neanderthal Ancestry, Y and mtDNA haplogroups provided for people you are sharing with||Customers can integrate their matches with the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA results. Family Finder matrix is available for project administrators.||Comparison of overlap of ancestral origins between matches and automatic identification of common ancestors, surnames and birth places between matches' family trees||Automatic identification of shared surnames and shared ancestors between matches' family trees; automatic identification of shared ethnicities with one's matches; genealogical events shown on ethnicity map; more than 2100 genetic groups||High resolution ethnicity estimates for the United Kingdom|
|Online Community Forum||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Lead scientists in the company||Joanna Mountain, Brian Naughton, Steve Lemon||Connie Bormans||Catherine Ball, Jake Byrnes||Dr. Yaniv Erlich, Yoav Naveh||Martin Blythe|
|Outside consultants for the company||Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard||Michael Hammer, Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Theodore Schurr, Alan Redd||Philip Awadalla, Jeffrey Botkin, Carlos Bustamante, Mark Daly, John Novembre, Brenna Henn||None||None|
|Ownership||Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates||Gene by Gene and MyDNA||As of December 2020 owned by the US investment firm Blackstone||Francisco Partners, Gilad Japhet, HP Beteiligungs GmbH, Yuval Rakavy, and Gigi Levy||David Nicholson|
|Additional information about the test||See:||See:||See:
|Additional DNA testing options available from the company||No, not at this time||Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR and SNP testing, complete or partial mitochondrial DNA testing, and complete genome testing||No, not at this time (Ancestry previously offered Y-DNA and mtDNA tests but this option was discontinued in June 2014)||No, not at this time||A wellbeing test can be purchased as an upgrade|
|Address||223 N. Mathilda Ave, Sunnyvale, California 94086||1445 North Loop West, Suite 820, Houston, Texas 77008||1300 West Traverse Parkway, Lehi, Utah 84043||headquarters in Or Yehuda, Israel with offices in Tel Aviv, Israel; Burbank, California; and Lehi, Utah||Unit G1, Frome Business Park, Manor Road, Marston Trading Estate, Frome, Somerset, BA11 4BL, UK|
|Phone Number||1-800-239-5230 or enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back||713-868-1438||800-958-9124 (best for DNA related questions) or 800-262-3787 (in the U. S.); 0800-404-9723 (UK); 800-958-9073 (Canada); 800-252-838 (Australia)||877-432-3135 in USA; other phone numbers at https://www.myheritage.com/FP/contact-us.php||+44 (0)203 424 3482|
|E-mail address||[email protected]||FTDNA Contact Form||[email protected]||[email protected]||[email protected]|
|Date product launched||November 19, 2007||February 16, 2010||US: May 3, 2012. UK and Ireland: January 29, 2015. 29 additional countries: February 23, 2016.||November 7, 2016||September 22-27, 2016|
- 23andMe reviews
- Ancestry DNA reviews
- Family Finder reviews
- Genographic Project Geno 2.0 reviews
- Comparing ethnicity estimates across companies by Kitty Cooper, Kitty Cooper's blog, 12 October 2020.
- What Dutch DNA looks like by Yvette Hoitink, Dutch Genealogy Blog. 10 July 2018. A comparison of results from five companies.
- A tale of four DNA tests by Louis Kessler, Behold Genealogy, 21 March 2018. A comparison of DNA tests across four companies for someone of Ashkenazi ancestry.
- How DNA testing botched my family's heritage, and probably yours too by Kristen Brown. Gizmodo, 16th January 2018. Comparisons between 23andMe, AncestryDNA, National Geographic and Gencove.
- Ethnicity estimates and Britishness. learnalittleeveryday blog, 17 June 2017 (UK). Includes a comparison of results from Living DNA, AncestryDNA, 23andMe, MyHeritage and Family Tree DNA.
- Comparing ethnicity estimates by Elizabeth Onheiber. Genetic Genealogy: The Beginning, 6 March 2017 (US).
- Concepts - calculating ethnicity percentages by Roberta Estes, DNAeXplained, 11 January 2017 (US). A comparison of admixture results from 23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and the Genographic Project.
- An English ancestry - documentary and DNA, Journals of a Non-Conformist, 6 January 2017 (UK). A comparison of admixture results from 23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA, and various third-party tools.
- My ancestry estimates by Margaret Jordan, The Cork Genealogist, 18 November 2016.
- How Accurate are Ethnic Results From Current Autosomal DNA Testing? by Betty Tartas. Betty's Boneyard Genealogy Blog,15 May 2016.
- Ancestry composition comparisons: a case study by Kitty Cooper, Kitty Cooper's Blog, 16 April 2016. An updated comparison was provided in a follow-up post Norwegian or English? DNA ancestry predictions dated 29 May 2017.
- Three admixture recipes for Razib Khan by Razib Khan, The Unz Review, 12 February 2016.
- Comparison of my AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and 23andMe Results by Aidan Byrne, 8thrdf's Blog, 18 May 2015 (Ireland).
- Comparing admixture results from AncestryDNA, 23andMe and Family Tree DNA by Debbie Kennett, 16 May 2015 (UK).
- Five DNA tests, 100% me, and back to square one by Sarah Abel, Anthropology While White blog, 5 September 2014.
- My autosomal DNA quandary by Randy Seaver, Genea-Musings 22 August 2013 (US).
- Who do they think I am? A look at four autosomal analyses by Jim Owston, 6 March 2013 (US).
- Autosomal testing comparison by Roberta Estes, 3 January, 2013 (US).
- Comparing Admixture Test Results Across Companies - My Review by CeCe Moore, 18 December 2012 (US).
- AncestryDNA and subscriptions Ancestry Support article. Accessed 21 October 2020.
- Shipping DNA tests worldwide FTDNA Learning Center. Accessed 21 October 2020.
- AncestryDNA now offered in 29 new countries. Ancestry Corporate blog, 23 February 2016.
- AncestryDNA now available in the United Kingdom and Ireland Ancestry Blog, January 29, 2015.
23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and National Geographic Genographic are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.
- Admixture analyses
- Autosomal DNA
- Autosomal DNA match thresholds
- Autosomal DNA statistics
- Autosomal DNA tools
- Autosomal SNP comparison chart
- Before You Buy
- Beginners' guides to genetic genealogy
- Choosing a DNA testing company
- DNA Relatives
- Family Finder
- Shipping DNA kits
- Understanding genetic ancestry testing
- Comparison DTC DNA tests 01/2013
- Coakley L. Which DNA testing company should I use? Genie! blog (a review from the perspective of people living in Australia and New Zealand]
- Griffith S. Buyer beware links. Genealogy Junkie, 14 May, 2014.
- Griffith S. Notes for UK (& Ex-US) residents re DNA testing companies. Genealogy Junkie, 16 January 2014.
- MacArthur D. Ready to test your DNA: how to choose a genetic testing company. PRI's The World, 22 March 2012.
- Aulicino E. Which DNA testing company fits your needs? Genealem blog, 23 May 2009.
- Wagner JK, Cooper JD, Sterling R, and Royal CD. Tilting at windmills no longer: a data-driven discussion of DTC DNA ancestry tests. Genetics in Medicine 2012:14(6):586–593. The article provides a snapshot of the direct-to-consumer DNA ancestry testing industry in April 2010 based on a survey of company websites.
- DNAtestingchoice.com A DNA testing review website