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Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart

From ISOGG Wiki

Autosomal DNA testing for genetic genealogy purposes is provided by the following five companies: 23andMe, AncestryDNA, MyHeritage, Family Tree DNA and the Genographic Project. For background material on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy and Choosing a DNA testing company.

For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.

Comparison Chart

Company 23andMe Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder test's AncestryDNA test National Geographic Genographic Project Geno 2.0 Next Generation test MyHeritage
Primary purpose for which the test was designed Medical
Personal Ancestry
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Population Genetics Research
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal)
Personal Ancestry (Y-DNA)
Personal Ancestry (mtDNA)
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Price (as of 13 December 2016) $199 for the lifetime of the platform in the U.S., CAD $249 in Canada, €169 in Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden and the Netherlands, and £149 in the UK for both the medical and ancestry features. The test is also available as an ancestry-only test in the U. S. for $99 and in some other countries for $149. $89 for the lifetime of the platform $99 in the U.S.; £79 in the UK and Ireland; AUS $149.00 in Australia and New Zealand, CAD $149 in Canada. Check local AncestryDNA websites for prices in other countries. An Ancestry subscription is required to access some features.[1] $199.95 (£127) $79 (US); £79 (UK)
Shipping charges $9.95 in the US for the first kit (includes return shipping) and $5 per kit for each additional kit shipped to the same address; CAD $19.95 for Canada; £9.99 for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $39.99 and $127.99. See 23andMe international availability for further details. $12.95 for the USA and for international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)[2] $9.95 per kit; £20 UK and Ireland and £10 for additional kits (includes prepaid return postage); AUS $29.99 Australia and New Zealand; CAD $19.95 Canada. Check local AncestryDNA websites for shipping charges for other countries. None for the U.S.; $10 for Canada; $20 (£13) for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries $12 in the United States; £12 in the UK
International product availability 56 countries (health reports only available in selected countries). See 23andMe international availability for a list of countries. Worldwide United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. The AncestryDNA test was launched in an additional 29 countries in February 2016.[3] Worldwide All countries except France, Poland, and Israel, as well the state of Alaska
Method for collecting the DNA sample saliva sample (about 1 cc) cheek swab saliva sample (about 1/2 cc) saliva sample cheek swab
DNA sample storage Yes, indefinitely Yes, for a minimum of 25 years Yes, indefinitely Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used Yes, indefinitely
Projects supported No Yes No Yes if data is transferred to Family Tree DNA database No
Means of contacting people who share matching segments Contact may be made after seeing your list of matches in DNA Relatives or Ancestry Finder; the matches must be willing to share genomes with you if you are to see what segments you share with your matches E-mail addresses of all matches are available Contact can be made through’s messaging system No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the web site for others to view, so add your contact information to them. Contact can be made through MyHeritage's messaging system
Average responsiveness of matches Fairly low Medium to Fairly high Medium Not applicable Medium to Fairly High
Average level of genealogical knowledge of matches Fairly low Fairly high Medium Not applicable Fairly high
GEDCOM file upload allowed No Yes Link is created to pedigree charts No Yes
Upload of raw data file allowed from other companies No Yes, but 23andMe Version 3 files (c. November 2010 to November 2013) and files only No No Yes, from 23andMe, FTDNA's Family Finder,, and WeGene
Upload of raw data file allowed by GEDmatch into the GEDmatch database Yes Yes Yes No Yes
SNP chip used for testing Customized Illumina chip Illumina OmniExpress Illumina OmniExpress Customized Illumina OmniExpress Illumina OmniExpress chip
Number of autosomal SNPs tested 577,382 about 690,000 637,639 700,000[4] 702,442
Number of Y chromosome SNPS 2329 None 1691 (labeled as chromosome 24) ~20,000[5] 482
Number of X chromosome SNPS 19,487 18,091 28,892 (labeled as chromosome 23), plus 440 SNPs labeled as chromosome 25 that are either from chromosome X or from the pseudoautosomal regions of the Y chromosome ~4000[6] 17,889
Number of mitochondrial DNA SNPS 3154 None 195 ~4000 positions on the mtDNA genome[7] none
Number of people in the database (as of 1 May 2017) 2,000,000 About 500,000 4,000,000 About 230,000 (Geno 2.0 and Geno 2.0 NextGeneration) About 50,000
Source for number of people in the database 23andMe Wins Approval to Sell Genetic Tests Video personal estimate by Tim Janzen AncestryDNA Reaches 4 Million Customers 15 Mar 2016 email from Miguel Vilar to Leah Larkin personal estimate by Tim Janzen
Medically related SNP data included in data Yes Yes, but about 3000 medically related SNPs have been removed Yes Yes, but about 3000 medically related SNPs have been removed Yes
Download of raw data file allowed Yes Yes Yes Yes, but only available as a free downloadable file from FTDNA through their website Yes
Information about the matching segments shared with customers and available for download Yes (if the match is willing to share genomes) Yes for all matches No Not applicable No
Chromosome browser available for comparison of shared segments Yes, using the DNA comparison tool associated with DNA Relatives Yes, using the Chromosome Browser tool No Yes, if data is transferred to the Family Tree DNA database No, but this is reportedly planned
Chromosome browser can be adjusted to different thresholds for matching segments No Yes, with thresholds of 1 cM, 3 cMs, 5 cMs, and 10 cMs No Not applicable Not applicable
Maximum number of comparisons that can be done at a time using the chromosome browser 5 5 None Not applicable Not applicable
Criteria for matching segments 7 cMs and at least 700 SNPs for first half-identical region; 5 cMs and 700 SNPs for additional half-identical regions and for people you are sharing with Option 1: 9 cMs and 500 SNPs for one half-identical region; Option 2: 7.7 cMs for the first half-identical region and a total of at least 20 cMs (including the shorter matching HIRs between 1 cM and 7 cMs); Option 3: 5.5 cMs and at least 500 SNPs for the first half-identical region for about 1% of customers who come from specific non-European populations 6 cMs for the first segment Not applicable About 12 cMs for the longest segment if only a single segment is shared; about 9.9 cMs for the longest segment if at least two segments are shared; about 8.7 cMs for the longest segment if at least 5 or more segments are shared; about 3-4 cMs and 400 SNPs for additional shared segments
Information about the start and stop positions of matching segments Start and stop positions are not rounded Start and stop positions are rounded to the nearest complete block of 100 SNPs Not Provided Not applicable Not provided
Information reported about the lengths of matching segments Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest 100,000th cM Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a cM Not provided Yes, if data is transferred to Family Tree DNA The total number of shared segments and the total number of shared cMs are provided, but not the lengths of the matching segments
Information provided regarding the number of SNPs in each matching segment Yes Yes No Not applicable No
Information about matching segments on the X chromosome reported Yes Yes No Yes, if data is transferred to Family Tree DNA No
Criteria for matching segments on the X chromosome For half-IBD segments: Male vs male: 200 SNPs, 1 cM; male vs female: 600 SNPs, 6 cMs; female vs female: 1200 SNPs, 6 cMs; For full-IBD segments: 500 SNPs, 5 cMs 1 cM and 500 SNPs for both males and females; matches must already meet the autosomal DNA matching criteria Unknown Not applicable Not applicable
Information about mitochondrial DNA matches reported No No No Yes, for those who have completed their profile about their matrilineal ancestry No
Integrated genealogy database available to which customers may link No No No No No, but MyHeritage owns, an integrated database
Biogeographical ancestry analysis Yes, using the Ancestry Composition feature Yes, using the myOrigins and the ancient Origins features Yes, using the Ethnicity Estimate feature Yes, using the "Who Am I" feature Yes
Chromosomes painted according to ethnic or regional ancestry as part of the biogeographical ancestry analysis Yes, using Ancestry Composition's Chromosome View No No No No
Overall accuracy and sophistication of the biogeographical ancestry analysis rated on a 1-10 scale with 10 being excellent and 1 being poor Overall rating: 7
The Ancestry Composition feature offers a map view which displays one's ancestral components from various regions of the world as of 500 years ago, a split view for those who also have one or both parents who have been tested by 23andMe, and a breakdown by chromosone. Three settings are available: conservative, standard, and speculative. Overall accuracy is reasonably good, but predictions in Europe are still not optimal, particularly in the speculative mode. Ancestry Finder provides a breakdown of one's ancestry by country.
Overall rating: 3.5
The myOrigins analysis is much improved over FTDNA's previous Population Finder analysis. However, it still lacks specificity, particularly for Europe. No chromosome painting feature is available.
Overall rating: 4.5
The Genetic Ethnicity Summary consistently overestimates the Central European and Scandinavian ancestral components for people whose ancestors were from the British Isles. The ancestral component from the British Isles is overestimated for people whose ancestors were from continental Europe. Overall, the European ancestry predictions tend to be inaccurate. The Genetic Community feature indicates which populations or ethnic groups that have existed within the past 150 to 400 years have contributed at least 4% of your autosomal DNA.
Overall rating: 2.5
(Note: This review relates to the former Geno 2.0 test. Results are not yet available for Geno 2.0 Next Generation.) Since a relatively limited number of autosomal SNPs are available for analysis, the biogeographical ancestry analysis is somewhat limited relative to other similar tools, particularly relative to Ancestry Composition. The two closest reference populations are given for each person who is tested. However, these predictions, particularly the second closest reference population, are frequently inaccurate.
Overall rating: 3
Phased data used for determining matching segments No No Yes Not applicable Yes
Phased segments linked to specific ancestors No No No No No
Average number of autosomal SNPs with discrepant data using two parent/one child trio datasets About 335 About 210 to 220 Unknown Unknown Unknown
Link can be made to confirm known relationships Yes Yes No No No
Special features Ancestry Composition, Ancestry Finder, Neanderthal Ancestry, Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry tool, Y and mtDNA haplogroups provided for people you are sharing with Customers can integrate their matches with the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA results. Family Finder matrix is available for project administrators. Comparison of overlap of ancestral origins between matches and automatic identification of common ancestors, surnames and birth places between matches' family trees N.B. This information relates to the original Geno 2.0. Further details are awaited for Geno 2.0 Next Gen. There are approximately 75,000 Ancestry Informative Markers from about 450 populations around the world that are included on the test. About 10,000 of the Y chromosome SNPs included on the test have not previously been tested in large populations. Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestral percentages are provided. Automatic identification of shared surnames between matches' family trees; genealogical events shown on ethnicity map
Online Community Forum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Lead scientists in the company Joanna Mountain, Brian Naughton, Steve Lemon Connie Bormans Ken Chahine, Catherine Ball, Jake Byrnes Miguel Vilar Dr. Yaniv Erlich, Yoav Naveh
Outside consultants for the company Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard Michael Hammer, Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Theodore Schurr, Alan Redd Philip Awadalla, Jeffrey Botkin, Carlos Bustamante, Mark Daly, John Novembre, Brenna Henn Connie Bormans, Eran Elhaik, Thomas Krahn, Elliott Greenspan None
Ownership Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates Gene by Gene As of January 2013 owned by the European equity firm Permira National Geographic Society
a Non-profit scientific and educational society
Gilad Japhet
Additional information about the test See: See: See: See: See:
Additional DNA testing options available from the company No, not at this time Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR and SNP testing, complete or partial mitochondrial DNA testing, and complete genome testing No, not at this time (Ancestry previously offered Y-DNA and mtDNA tests but this option was discontinued in June 2014) No, not at this time No, not at this time
Address 899 W. Evelyn Ave., Mountain View, CA 94041 1445 North Loop West, Suite 820, Houston, TX 77008 360 W 4800 N Provo, UT 84604 1145 17th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 20036-4688 headquarters in Or Yehuda, Israel with offices in Tel Aviv, Israel; Burbank, California; and Lehi, Utah
Phone Number Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back 713-868-1438 800-958-9124 (best for DNA related questions) or 800-262-3787 (in the U. S.); 0800-404-9723 (UK); 800-958-9073 (Canada); 800-252-838 (Australia) 888-557-4450 (in the U. S. or Canada) or 713-868-1807 877-432-3135 in USA; other phone numbers at
E-mail address [email protected] FTDNA Contact Form [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]
Date product launched November 19, 2007 February 16, 2010 May 3, 2012 Geno 2.0: July 25, 2012; Geno 2.0 Next Generation: August 2015 November 7, 2016



  1. AncestryDNA and subscriptions Ancestry Support article, 2 November 2016.
  2. Editorial Staff. "Shipping DNA tests worldwide". Family Tree DNA Learning Center. Gene by Gene. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  3. Murray J. AncestryDNA now offered in 29 new countries. Ancestry blog, 23 February 2016.
  4. Full details of new test yet to be announced.
  5. Full details of new test yet to be announced.
  6. Full details of new test yet to be announced.
  7. Full details of new test yet to be announced.


23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and National Geographic Genographic are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.

See also

Further reading