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MtDNA testing comparison chart

From ISOGG Wiki

This mtDNA testing comparison chart provides comparative information on the mitochondrial DNA tests offered by the major genetic genealogy testing companies.

For background information on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy and and Choosing a DNA testing company.

For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.

This chart is provided for informational purposes only. Edits/additions can be made upon ISOGG member request and subject to approval. Please submit additions, corrections/updates to .

Company name 23andMe Family Tree DNA[1] Full Genomes Corporation Genebase Living DNA YSEQ
Method Chip-based genotyping Next generation sequencing 2000x coverage[2] Next generation sequencing Sanger sequencing? Chip-based genotyping Sanger sequencing
Main purpose of test Health and traits (some countries only).
Ancestry: DNA Relatives, global origins, ancestral haplogroups
Genealogy Y-SNP discovery and whole genome sequencing Genealogy Genealogy, biogeographical analysis and deep ancestry Deep ancestry
HVR1 only test Not available Discontinued[3] Not available $119 Not available $25
HVR1+HVR2 test Not available Discontinued Not available $189 Not available $25
HVR1 bases tested Selected branch-defining SNPs Not applicable Not applicable 16001-16520 Selected branch-defining SNPs 15950-16569
HVR2 bases tested Selected branch-defining SNPs Not applicable Not applicable 1-400 Selected branch-defining SNPs 1-620
Entire mtDNA genome (HVR1, HVR2 + coding region = 16569 bases) No $159[4] $1150 for a 30x whole genome sequence; $645 Y Elite 2.1 80x[5] $528 No $145[6]
Haplogroup SNP test (for HVR1+HVR2 tests only) Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Included in the cost of the HVR1 + HVR2 test Not applicable No
Chip test $199 in the US (an ancestry-only test is also available in the US For $99); CAD $199 Canada, £149 UK; €169 Denmark, Sweden, Ireland, Finland and the Netherlands. An international ancestry-only kit is available in selected countries for US $149 Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable $159 US; £120 UK; €159.00 Europe; $199 Australia Not applicable
Number of mtDNA SNPs tested (for chip tests only) 4000+ positions on the mtDNA genome Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable 4000+ positions on the mtDNA genome Not applicable
Shipping charges $14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the US; £9.95 for the UK. See 23andMe international availability for costs in other countries. $9.95 for the USA and for international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)[7] $25 for the US; $39 for international orders Regular delivery, approximately 7 to 10 business days - $10.00 USD. Express delivery, 1 to 2 business days - $25.00 USD Included in the cost of the test Free for mtComplete; $6 (€5.22) for a first-time customer ordering HRV1 and/or HVR2
International product availability 56 countries. See See 23andMe international availability for details. Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide
DNA sample storage Yes, indefinitely Yes, for a minimum of 25 years No, but the option might be added in the future Yes, for 25 years Free for a minimum of 10 years Free unlimited storage[8]
Phylotree Build[9] Build 12 Build 17 Not applicable[10] ? Build 17 Build 17
Raw data/FASTA file provided Yes Yes ? ? No Yes
Projects supported No Yes No No No Yes though no mtDNA projects have yet been established
Online community or forum Active online community for 23andMe members, including demo accounts Public FTDNA forums Full Genomes Facebook group ? No YSEQ Facebook group
Genealogical matching database For autosomal DNA only Yes No Yes Not yet available No
Size of mtDNA matching database Not applicable 215,000+ mtDNA full sequences[11] Not applicable Not known Not applicable Not applicable
Additional DNA testing options available from this company Yes, Y-SNP testing, biogeographical analysis and red hair test Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, single SNP tests, and autosomal genome wide scans No Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, some Y-SNP testing No Yes, whole genome sequencing and multiple options for Y-STR, autosomal STR, X-STR and Y-SNP testing
Lead scientists in the company Joanna Mountain, Steve Lemon Michael Hammer, Connie Bormans ? Martin Blythe Thomas Krahn, Astrid Krahn
Outside consultants for the company Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar[12] Greg Magoon ? ? Not applicable
Ownership Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates Gene by Gene Privately held ? DNA Worldwide Directors: David Nicholson and Hannah Morden Thomas Krahn and Astrid Krahn
Lab(s) used National Genetics Institute
(a subsidiary of LabCorp), Los Angeles, California
Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas Novogene Genetrack Biolabs Eurofins YSEQ GmbH, Berlin, Germany
Method for collecting the sample Saliva sample (about 1 cc) Cheek swab Saliva sample or cheek swab Cheek swab Cheek swab Cheek swab
Address 23andMe
899 W Evelyn Ave
Mountain View
CA 94041
Family Tree DNA
1445 North Loop West
Suite 820
TX 77008
Full Genomes Corporation Inc
2275 Research Blvd
Suite 500
MD 20850
Genebase Systems Inc
200-2806 Kingsway
BC V5R 5T5
Living DNA
K10 The Courtyard
Jenson Avenue
Commerce Park
Somerset BA11 2FG
Kettinger Straße 32
12305 Berlin
Contact email FTDNA Contact Form email email email email
Phone number Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back 713-868-1438 All communications are via e-mail 1-604-714-6357 0203 424 3482 (1) 281-627-8139
Year founded 2006 2000 2012 2005 (1998)[13] 2004 (2016)[14] 2013


  1. Family Tree DNA also processes tests for a number of affiliate companies: African DNA, iGENEA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin and DNA Worldwide. Participants who join Family Tree DNA's database from these companies will have kit numbers that begin with 'A' from African DNA, 'E' from iGENEA, 'M' from DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, and 'U' from DNA Worldwide. National Geographic Genographic kit transfers begin with 'N'. Family Tree DNA acquired DNA Heritage in April 2011. DNA Heritage customers were given the option of transferring their results to the FTDNA database. DNA Heritage kit numbers begin with the letter 'H'.
  2. Canada RA. How do you perform mtDNA mitochondrial DNA) tests? FAQ, Family Tree DNA Learning Center, 1 January 2014. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, 31 July 2017.
  3. FTDNA discontinued the HVR1 test in May 2013
  4. This test is known as the full mitochondrial sequence (FMS) test. It was previously referred to as the full genomic sequence (FGS) or mega test.
  5. The WGS test provides 100% coverage of the mtDNA genome. The YElite test is a Y-chromosome sequence test which reports on all known Y-SNPs plus an unpredictable number of novel Y-SNPs and 300+ Y-STRs. The full mtDNA sequence is included in the test as a bonus. There is 90%-100 coverage of the mtDNA genome with the YElite depending on the sample.
  6. YSEQ also has an mtUpgrade panel for $115 (including shipping) to upgrade a HVR test to a complete mtDNA sequence. It doesn't matter if the HVR1/2 was done at YSEQ or elsewhere. YSEQ also offers whole genome sequencing which includes a full mtDNA sequence and in depth mtDNA analysis
  7. Shipping DNA tests worldwide FTDNA Learning Center. Accessed 12 January 2021.
  8. YSEQ cannot guarantee how long samples will be usable. If a sample degrades a free replacement kit will be provided. The customer will need to pay the return postage back to Berlin.
  9. The mtDNA tree is maintained by Phylotree. The current version is Build 17.
  10. An mtDNA haplogroup classification is not provided. The customer is given the sequence in FASTA format for self-analysis with third party tools
  11. About the Family Tree DNA database Family Tree DNA website. Accessed 27 November 2021. The database also includes about another 80,000 HVRI or HVRI+HVR2 tests.
  12. Who's who at Family Tree DNA
  13. Genebase launched in 2005. Genetrack Biolabs launched in 1998.
  14. DNA Worldwide was founded in 2004. Living DNA launched in 2016.

See also

Further reading



23andMe, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, Family Tree DNA, Full Genomes Corporation, iGENEA, Genebase, Living DNA and YSEQ are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.