Page Actions

MtDNA testing comparison chart

From ISOGG Wiki

This mtDNA testing comparison chart provides comparative information on the mitochondrial DNA tests offered by the major genetic genealogy testing companies.

For background information on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy and and Choosing a DNA testing company.

For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.

This chart is provided for informational purposes only. Edits/additions can be made upon ISOGG member request and subject to approval. Please submit additions, corrections/updates to .

Company name 23andMe Family Tree DNA[1] Full Genomes Corporation Genebase Genographic Project
Geno 2.0 Next Generation test[2]
Living DNA Oxford Ancestors YSEQ
Method Chip-based genotyping Next generation sequencing 2000x coverage[3] Next generation sequencing Sanger sequencing? Chip-based genotyping Chip-based genotyping Sanger sequencing? Sanger sequencing
Main purpose of test Health and traits (some countries only).
Ancestry: DNA Relatives, global origins, ancestral haplogroups
Genealogy Y-SNP discovery and whole genome sequencing Genealogy Deep ancestry Genealogy, biogeographical analysis and deep ancestry Anthropological testing: patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups; biogeographical analysis Deep ancestry
HVR1 only test Not available No longer available[4] Not available $119 Not available Not available £199 $25
HVR1+HVR2 test Not available $89 Not available $189 Not available Not available Not available $25
HVR1 bases tested Selected branch-defining SNPs 16001-16569 Not applicable 16001-16520 Selected branch-defining SNPs Selected branch-defining SNPs 16001-16400 16001-16400
HVR2 bases tested Selected branch-defining SNPs 1-574 Not applicable 1-400 Selected branch-defining SNPs Selected branch-defining SNPs Not tested 1-574
Entire mtDNA genome (HVR1, HVR2 + coding region = 16569 bases) No $199[5] $1150 for a 30x whole genome sequence; $645 Y Elite 2.1 80x[6] $528 No No No $179[7]
Haplogroup SNP test (for HVR1+HVR2 tests only) Not applicable Included in the cost of the HVR1+HVR2 test[8] Not applicable Included in the cost of the HVR1 + HVR2 test Not applicable Not applicable Yes No
Chip test $199 in the US (an ancestry-only test is also available in the US For $99); CAD $199 Canada, £149 UK; €169 Denmark, Sweden, Ireland, Finland and the Netherlands. An international ancestry-only kit is available in selected countries for US $149 Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable $199.95 US [9] $159 US; £120 UK; €159.00 Europe; $199 Australia Not applicable Not applicable
Number of mtDNA SNPs tested (for chip tests only) 4000+ positions on the mtDNA genome Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable ~4000 positions on the mtDNA genome[10] 4000+ positions on the mtDNA genome Not applicable Not applicable
Shipping charges $14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the US; £9.95 for the UK. See 23andMe international availability for costs in other countries. $12.95 for USA and international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)[11] $25 for the US; $39 for international orders Regular delivery, approximately 7 to 10 business days - $10.00 USD. Express delivery, 1 to 2 business days - $25.00 USD None for the US; $10 for Canada; $20 for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries Included in the cost of the test  ? Free for mtComplete; $5 for a first-time customer ordering HRV1 and/or HVR2
International product availability 56 countries. See See 23andMe international availability for details. Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide? Worldwide Worldwide? Worldwide
DNA sample storage Yes, indefinitely Yes, for a minimum of 25 years No, but the option might be added in the future Yes, for 25 years Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used Free for a minimum of 10 years No Free unlimited storage[12]
Phylotree Build[13] Build 17 Build 17 Not applicable[14]  ? Build 16 Build 17  ? Build 17
Raw data/FASTA file provided Yes Yes  ?  ? No No  ? Yes
Projects supported No Yes No No Yes, if the free transfer to FTDNA is used No No Yes though no mtDNA projects have yet been established
Online community or forum Active online community for 23andMe members, including demo accounts Public FTDNA forums Full Genomes Facebook group  ? No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the website for others to view, so add your contact information to them. No  ? YSEQ Facebook group
Genealogical matching database For autosomal DNA only Yes No Yes No Not yet available  ? No
Size of mtDNA matching database Not applicable ~ 260,000[15] Not applicable Not known Not applicable Not applicable Not known Not applicable
Sponsored public database No Yes, Mitosearch (for HVR1+HVR2 results) and mtDNACommunity (for full sequence results) No No No No No No
Additional DNA testing options available from this company Yes, Y-SNP testing, biogeographical analysis and red hair test Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, single SNP tests, and autosomal genome wide scans No Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, some Y-SNP testing No No Yes, Limited Y-STR testing Yes, whole genome sequencing and multiple options for Y-STR and Y-SNP testing
Lead scientists in the company Joanna Mountain, Steve Lemon Michael Hammer, Connie Bormans  ? Miguel Vilar Martin Blythe Bryan Sykes Thomas Krahn, Astrid Krahn
Outside consultants for the company Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar[16] Greg Magoon  ? Connie Bormans, Elliott Greenspan  ? Not applicable Not applicable
Ownership Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates Gene by Gene
Managing partners Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld
Privately held  ? National Geographic
is a "non-profit scientific and educational society"
DNA Worldwide Directors: David Nicholson and Hannah Morden Oxford Ancestors Ltd
Directors: Bryan Sykes, Susan Foden and William James
Thomas Krahn and Astrid Krahn
Lab(s) used National Genetics Institute
(a subsidiary of LabCorp), Los Angeles, California
Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas Novogene Genetrack Biolabs Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas Eurofins Oxford Ancestors Laboratory, Kidlington, Oxfordshire DNA-Fingerprint
Method for collecting the sample Saliva sample (about 1 cc) Cheek swab Saliva sample or cheek swab Cheek swab Cheek swab Cheek swab  ? Cheek swab
Address 23andMe
899 W Evelyn Ave
Mountain View
CA 94041
Family Tree DNA
1445 North Loop West
Suite 820
TX 77008
Full Genomes Corporation Inc
2275 Research Blvd
Suite 500
MD 20850
Genebase Systems Inc
200-2806 Kingsway
BC V5R 5T5
The Genographic Project
1145 17th St. N.W.
Washington, D. C.
Living DNA
K10 The Courtyard
Jenson Avenue
Commerce Park
Somerset BA11 2FG
Oxford Ancestors
PO BOX 841
Oxfordshire OX1 9LJ
Eiswaldtstr. 31
12249 Berlin
Contact email FTDNA Contact Form email email email email email email
Phone number Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back 713-868-1438 All communications are via e-mail 1-604-714-6357 888-557-4450 (in the US or Canada) or 713-868-1807 0203 424 3482 0845 5438060 (1) 281-627-8139
Year founded 2006 2000 2012 2005 (1998)[17] 2005 2004 (2016)[18] 2000 2013


  1. Family Tree DNA also processes tests for a number of affiliate companies: African DNA, iGENEA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin and DNA Worldwide. Participants who join Family Tree DNA's database from these companies will have kit numbers that begin with 'A' from African DNA, 'E' from iGENEA, 'M' from DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, and 'U' from DNA Worldwide. National Geographic Genographic kit transfers begin with 'N'. Family Tree DNA acquired DNA Heritage in April 2011. DNA Heritage customers were given the option of transferring their results to the FTDNA database. DNA Heritage kit numbers begin with the letter 'H'.
  2. The Geno 2.0 test was launched in the fall of 2012. Geno 2.0 Next Generation went on sale in August 2015.
  3. Canada RA. How do you perform mtDNA mitochondrial DNA) tests? FAQ, Family Tree DNA Learning Center, 1 January 2014. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, 31 July 2017.
  4. FTDNA discontinued the HVR1 test in May 2013
  5. This test is known as the full mitochondrial sequence (FMS) test. It was previously referred to as the full genomic sequence (FGS) or mega test.
  6. The WGS test provides 100% coverage of the mtDNA genome. The YElite test is a Y-chromosome sequence test which reports on all known Y-SNPs plus an unpredictable number of novel Y-SNPs and 300+ Y-STRs. The full mtDNA sequence is included in the test as a bonus. There is 90%-100 coverage of the mtDNA genome with the YElite depending on the sample.
  7. YSEQ also offers a whole genome sequence which includes a full mtDNA sequence and in depth mtDNA analysis
  8. Editorial Staff. "Are the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups predicted or confirmed?" Family Tree DNA Learning Center, Gene by Gene. Retrieved from the Internet Archive 31 July 2017
  9. The Genographic Project's Geno 2.0 Next Generation test uses a custom-designed Illumina Express chip which tests around 750,000 markers, including around 4000 mtDNA SNPs, and around 20,000 Y-SNPs. The full specifications for the test are not yet available.
  10. The original Geno 2.0 test had 11,378 probes covering 3281 positions on the mtDNA genome.
  11. Editorial Staff. "Shipping DNA tests worldwide". Family Tree DNA Learning Center. Gene by Gene. Retrieved 2016-5-24. 
  12. YSEQ cannot guarantee how long samples will be usable. If a sample degrades a free replacement kit will be provided. The customer will need to pay the return postage back to Berlin.
  13. The mtDNA tree is maintained by Phylotree. The current version is Build 17.
  14. An mtDNA haplogroup classification is not provided. The customer is given the sequence in FASTA format for self-analysis with third party tools
  15. About the Family Tree DNA database Family Tree DNA website. Accessed 31 July 2017.
  16. Who's who at Family Tree DNA
  17. Genebase launched in 2005. Genetrack Biolabs launched in 1998.
  18. DNA Worldwide was founded in 2004. Living DNA launched in 2016.

See also

Further reading



23andMe, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, Family Tree DNA, Full Genomes Corporation, iGENEA, Genebase, Living DNA, National Geographic Genographic and Oxford Ancestors are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.