MtDNA testing comparison chart
From ISOGG Wiki
For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.
This chart is provided for informational purposes only. Edits/additions can be made upon ISOGG member request and subject to approval. Please submit additions, corrections/updates to .
|Company name||23andMe||Family Tree DNA||Full Genomes Corporation||Genebase|| Genographic Project
Geno 2.0 Next Generation test
|Living DNA||Oxford Ancestors||YSEQ|
|Method||Chip-based genotyping||Next generation sequencing 2000x coverage||Next generation sequencing||Sanger sequencing?||Chip-based genotyping||Chip-based genotyping||Sanger sequencing?||Sanger sequencing|
|Main purpose of test|| Health and traits (some countries only).
Ancestry: DNA Relatives, global origins, ancestral haplogroups
|Genealogy||Y-SNP discovery and whole genome sequencing||Genealogy||Deep ancestry||Genealogy, biogeographical analysis and deep ancestry||Anthropological testing: patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups; biogeographical analysis||Deep ancestry|
|HVR1 only test||Not available||No longer available||Not available||$119||Not available||Not available||£199||$25|
|HVR1+HVR2 test||Not available||$69||Not available||$189||Not available||Not available||Not available||$25|
|HVR1 bases tested||Selected branch-defining SNPs||16001-16569||Not applicable||16001-16520||Selected branch-defining SNPs||Selected branch-defining SNPs||16001-16400||16001-16400|
|HVR2 bases tested||Selected branch-defining SNPs||1-574||Not applicable||1-400||Selected branch-defining SNPs||Selected branch-defining SNPs||Not tested||1-574|
|Entire mtDNA genome (HVR1, HVR2 + coding region = 16569 bases)||No||$199||$1150 for a 30x whole genome sequence; $695 Y Elite 50x||$528||No||No||No||$179|
|Haplogroup SNP test (for HVR1+HVR2 tests only)||Not applicable||Included in the cost of the HVR1+HVR2 test||Not applicable||Included in the cost of the HVR1 + HVR2 test||Not applicable||Not applicable||Yes||No|
|Chip test||$199 in the US (an ancestry-only test is also available in the US For $99); CAD $199 Canada, £149 UK; €169 Denmark, Sweden, Ireland, Finland and the Netherlands. An international ancestry-only kit is available in selected countries for US $149||Not applicable||Not applicable||Not applicable||$199.95 US ||$159 US; £120 UK; €159.00 Europe; $199 Australia||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Number of mtDNA SNPs tested (for chip tests only)||2737||Not applicable||Not applicable||Not applicable||~4000 positions on the mtDNA genome||~4700 positions on the mtDNA genome||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Shipping charges||$14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the US; £9.95 for the UK. See 23andMe international availability for costs in other countries.||$12.95 for USA and international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)||$25 for the US; $39 for international orders||Regular delivery, approximately 7 to 10 business days - $10.00 USD. Express delivery, 1 to 2 business days - $25.00 USD||None for the US; $10 for Canada; $20 for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries||Included in the cost of the test||?||Free for mtComplete; $5 for a first-time customer ordering HRV1 and/or HVR2|
|International product availability||56 countries. See See 23andMe international availability for details.||Worldwide||Worldwide||Worldwide||Worldwide?||Worldwide||Worldwide?||Worldwide|
|DNA sample storage||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, for a minimum of 25 years||No, but the option might be added in the future||Yes, for 25 years||Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used||Free for a minimum of 10 years||No||Free unlimited storage|
|Phylotree Build||Build 7||Build 17||Not applicable||?||Build 16||Build 17||?||Build 17|
|Raw data/FASTA file provided||Yes||Yes||?||?||No||No||?||Yes|
|Projects supported||No||Yes||No||No||Yes, if the free transfer to FTDNA is used||No||No||Yes though no mtDNA projects have yet been established|
|Online community or forum||Active online community for 23andMe members, including demo accounts||Public FTDNA forums||Full Genomes Facebook group||?||No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the website for others to view, so add your contact information to them.||No||?||YSEQ Facebook group|
|Genealogical matching database||For autosomal DNA only||Yes||No||Yes||No||Not yet available||?||No|
|Size of mtDNA matching database||Not applicable||~ 260,000||Not applicable||Not known||Not applicable||Not applicable||Not known||Not applicable|
|Sponsored public database||No||Yes, Mitosearch (for HVR1+HVR2 results) and mtDNACommunity (for full sequence results)||No||No||No||No||No||No|
|Additional DNA testing options available from this company||Yes, Y-SNP testing, biogeographical analysis and red hair test||Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, single SNP tests, and autosomal genome wide scans||No||Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, some Y-SNP testing||No||No||Yes, Limited Y-STR testing||Yes, whole genome sequencing and multiple options for Y-STR and Y-SNP testing|
|Lead scientists in the company||Joanna Mountain, Steve Lemon||Michael Hammer, Connie Bormans||?||Miguel Vilar||Martin Blythe||Bryan Sykes||Thomas Krahn, Astrid Krahn|
|Outside consultants for the company||Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard||Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Spencer Wells||Greg Magoon||?||Connie Bormans, Elliott Greenspan||?||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Ownership||Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates|| Gene by Gene
Managing partners Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld
|Privately held||?|| National Geographic
is a "non-profit scientific and educational society"
|DNA Worldwide Directors: David Nicholson and Hannah Morden||Oxford Ancestors Ltd
Directors: Bryan Sykes, Susan Foden and William James
|Thomas Krahn and Astrid Krahn|
|Lab(s) used|| National Genetics Institute
(a subsidiary of LabCorp), Los Angeles, California
|Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas||Novogene||Genetrack Biolabs||Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas||Eurofins||Oxford Ancestors Laboratory, Kidlington, Oxfordshire||DNA-Fingerprint|
|Method for collecting the sample||Saliva sample (about 1 cc)||Cheek swab||Saliva sample or cheek swab||Cheek swab||Cheek swab||Cheek swab||?||Cheek swab|
899 W Evelyn Ave
| Family Tree DNA
1445 North Loop West
| Full Genomes Corporation Inc
2275 Research Blvd
| Genebase Systems Inc
BC V5R 5T5
| The Genographic Project
1145 17th St. N.W.
Washington, D. C.
| Living DNA
K10 The Courtyard
Somerset BA11 2FG
PO BOX 841
Oxfordshire OX1 9LJ
|Contact||FTDNA Contact Form|
|Phone number||Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back||713-868-1438||All communications are via e-mail||1-604-714-6357||888-557-4450 (in the US or Canada) or 713-868-1807||0203 424 3482||0845 5438060||(1) 281-627-8139|
|Year founded||2006||2000||2012||2005 (1998)||2005||2004 (2016)||2000||2013|
- Family Tree DNA also processes tests for a number of affiliate companies: African DNA, iGENEA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin and DNA Worldwide. Participants who join Family Tree DNA's database from these companies will have kit numbers that begin with 'A' from African DNA, 'E' from iGENEA, 'M' from DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, and 'U' from DNA Worldwide. National Geographic Genographic kit transfers begin with 'N'. Family Tree DNA acquired DNA Heritage in April 2011. DNA Heritage customers were given the option of transferring their results to the FTDNA database. DNA Heritage kit numbers begin with the letter 'H'.
- The Geno 2.0 test was launched in the fall of 2012. Geno 2.0 Next Generation went on sale in August 2015.
- Canada RA. How do you perform mtDNA mitochondrial DNA) tests? FAQ, Family Tree DNA Learning Center, 1 January 2014. Retrieved from the Internet Archive, 31 July 2017.
- FTDNA discontinued the HVR1 test in May 2013
- This test is known as the full mitochondrial sequence (FMS) test. It was previously referred to as the full genomic sequence (FGS) or mega test.
- The WGS test provides 100% coverage of the mtDNA genome. The YElite test is a Y-chromosome sequence test which reports on all known Y-SNPs plus an unpredictable number of novel Y-SNPs and 300+ Y-STRs. The full mtDNA sequence is included in the test as a bonus. There is 90%-100 coverage of the mtDNA genome with the YElite depending on the sample.
- YSEQ also offers a whole genome sequence which includes a full mtDNA sequence and in depth mtDNA analysis
- Editorial Staff. "Are the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups predicted or confirmed?" Family Tree DNA Learning Center, Gene by Gene. Retrieved from the Internet Archive 31 July 2017
- The Genographic Project's Geno 2.0 Next Generation test uses a custom-designed Illumina Express chip which tests around 750,000 markers, including around 4000 mtDNA SNPs, and around 20,000 Y-SNPs. The full specifications for the test are not yet available.
- The original Geno 2.0 test had 11,378 probes covering 3281 positions on the mtDNA genome.
- Editorial Staff. "Shipping DNA tests worldwide". Family Tree DNA Learning Center. Gene by Gene. https://www.familytreedna.com/learn/ftdna/shipping-dna-tests-to-international-destinations/. Retrieved 2016-5-24.
- YSEQ cannot guarantee how long samples will be usable. If a sample degrades a free replacement kit will be provided. The customer will need to pay the return postage back to Berlin.
- The mtDNA tree is maintained by Phylotree. The current version is Build 17.
- An mtDNA haplogroup classification is not provided. The customer is given the sequence in FASTA format for self-analysis with third party tools
- About the Family Tree DNA database Family Tree DNA website. Accessed 31 July 2017.
- Who's who at Family Tree DNA
- Genebase launched in 2005. Genetrack Biolabs launched in 1998.
- DNA Worldwide was founded in 2004. Living DNA launched in 2016.
- Before You Buy
- Beginners' guides to genetic genealogy
- Choosing a DNA testing company
- Mitochondrial DNA portal
- Mitochondrial DNA tests
- List of mtDNA haplogroup projects
- mtDNA tools
- Shipping DNA kits
- Understanding genetic ancestry testing
- Coakley L. Which DNA testing company should I use? Genie! blog (a review from the perspective of people living in Australia and New Zealand]
- Griffith S. Buyer beware links. Genealogy Junkie, 14 May, 2014.
- Griffith S. Notes for UK (& Ex-US) residents re DNA testing companies. Genealogy Junkie, 16 January 2014.
- Kennett D. Mitochondrial DNA testing at a new low price. Cruwys News blog, 10 May 2013.
- MacArthur D. Ready to test your DNA: how to choose a genetic testing company. PRI's The World, 22 March 2012.
- Aulicino E. Which DNA testing company fits your needs? Genealem blog, 23 May 2009.
- Wagner JK, Cooper JD, Sterling R, and Royal CD. Tilting at windmills no longer: a data-driven discussion of DTC DNA ancestry tests. Genetics in Medicine 2012:14(6):586–593. The article provides a snapshot of the direct-to-consumer DNA ancestry testing industry in April 2010 based on a survey of company websites.
- DNAtestingchoice.com A DNA testing review website
23andMe, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, Family Tree DNA, Full Genomes Corporation, iGENEA, Genebase, Living DNA, National Geographic Genographic and Oxford Ancestors are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.