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Y-DNA SNP testing chart

From ISOGG Wiki

This Y-DNA SNP testing chart provides comparative information on the Y chromosome SNP tests offered by the major DNA testing companies. For information on the Y-STR tests used for genealogical DNA matching purposes within surname DNA projects see the Y-DNA STR testing chart.

For background information on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy and and Choosing a DNA testing company.

For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.

SNP testing for the Y chromosome advances knowledge about one's detailed haplogroup assignment and deep ancestry, and can also be used for genealogy purposes.

This chart is provided for informational purposes only. Additions made upon ISOGG member request. Please submit additions, corrections/updates to .

Company and product name 23andMe
Version 4 [1])
Family Tree DNA[2]
Big Y
Full Genomes Corporation
Y Elite
Genographic Project
Geno 2.0 Next Generation[3]
Date when product first went on sale November 2010 November 2013 Late 2012 August 2015 September 2016 November 2013
Cost [4] $199 for the lifetime of the platform in the U.S., CAD $249 in Canada, €169 in Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden and the Netherlands, and £149 in the UK for both the medical and ancestry features. The test is also available as an ancestry-only test in the U. S. for $99 and in some other countries for $149. $575 $645 (v2.1) $775 (v2.0), $850 (v1.0) [5] $199.95 $159 US; £120 UK; €159.00 Europe; $199 Australia panels $88-99; SNPs $18
International product availability 56 countries Worldwide Worldwide. As of 9th March 2018 orders are not being accepted from countries in the European Union including the UK Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide
Analyzed DNA Autosomal DNA, X-DNA, Y-DNA, mtDNA Y-DNA Y-DNA, mtDNA Autosomal DNA, X-DNA, Y-DNA, mtDNA Autosomal DNA, Y-DNA, mtDNA Y-DNA
Main purpose of test Health and traits (reports not available in all countries). Ancestry: DNA Relatives, biogeographical ancestry, patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups
Y-SNP discovery; patrilineal haplogroup Y-SNP discovery; patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups; Y-STR markers Anthropological testing: patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups; biogeographical ancestry Biogeographical ancestry; patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups detailed haplogroup; NGS SNP confirmation
Level of Y-haplogroup resolution Basic[6] High Highest available Medium Medium High
Method Chip-based genotyping
Illumina OmniExpress Plus customized chip
Next generation sequencing
Illumina HiSeq2000[7]
Mappable regions: 11-13 million base pairs[8]
Total sequence length: ca. 14 mbp
Read length: 100 base pairs
55-80x coverage[8]
library insert size: 140.4±88.6 bp [9]
Next generation sequencing
Illumina HiSeq
Mappable regions: 12-16 million base pairs[10]
Total sequence length: ca. 23 million base pairs.
Read length: 100 base pairs
~80x coverage
library insert size: 228.3±91.3 bp [11]
Chip-based genotyping
Illumina OmniExpress with 10% customised content
Chip-based genotyping
Illumina Global Screening Array with customised content
Method Analysis by YFull [12] - Median depth coverage 47
Length coverage 13,925,100
96 of the 111 STR-panel with good quality
Median depth coverage 39
Length coverage 22,731,890
98 of the 111 STR-panel with good quality
- - -
Results for currently known Y-SNPs 2,329 variants covered; many are no calls 76% of 55,000 known SNPs covered [12] 97% of 55,000 known SNPs covered [12] Full details not yet available but expected to cover around 20,000 SNPs[13] 22,500 Y-SNPs on chip but no data yet available on no calls > 50,000 as of Aug 2017
Results for private Y-SNPs (novel Y-variants) Not possible with chip-genotyping Average count 54 [12] Average count 66 [12] Not possible with chip-genotyping Not possible with chip-genotyping Not possible (see WGS product)
Format of results A zip .txt file with a list of all the SNPs tested and the genotype for each position. The genome reference positions are included. A raw data browser is also provided. VCF, BED, and BAM files A rar archive of 9 files which can be converted into a spreadsheet format. The files include a list of results for all the Y-SNPs tested, a list of private SNPs, a haplogroup compare file and a variant compare file, Y-STR and mtDNA. The raw data (in the form of a BAM file) is available on request. See the guest blog post by Itaï Perez for sample reports. A .CSV file containing a complete listing of all the Y-SNPs tested and the genotype for each allele. The genome reference positions are not given. A csv file of positive-only SNP matches is provided Online allele table
Availability of single Y-SNPs No Select from catalog of approx 3,600 SNPs at $39 per SNP. No Yes, if free transfer to FTDNA is used, so you can order there. No Yes
Availability of SNP panels No A limited selection of SNP panels is currently available. There are many subhapologroup-specific SNP panels in development. No No No Yes
Non Y-SNP results and reports included in the test 577,382 autosomal SNPs, 19,487 X chromosome SNPs, 3154 mt SNPs
health and ancestry reports included
Y-STRs included in BAM files but results are not reported though can be obtained by purchasing a third-party analysis. Up to April 3, 2015 also the mtDNA sequence was included (later removed) Over 300 Y-STRs (a list of alleles for all the Y-STRs tested), and mtDNA sequence included provided in two separate files showing differences from the CRS and the RSRS. Full details not yet available but the new chip covers 750,000 markers in total. It will be possible to transfer results to Family Tree DNA to participate in the Family Finder matching database. [14]
Ancestry reports included
638,000 autosomal SNPs, 17,800 X-chromosome SNPs, 4,700 mtDNA SNPs All tests are discrete
Shipping charges $14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the US; $79.95 for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $66.95 and $94.95. See shipping DNA kits for further info. $12.95 for USA and international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)[15] $25 for the US; $39 for international orders None for the US; $10 for Canada; $20 for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries Included in the cost of the test $5
Time from receiving the kit to release of results 6-8 weeks 8 weeks[8] Because of forwarding to the external laboratory and delays at the lab, sometimes several months Up to 10 weeks Not known 6-8 weeks for panels, 3-4 weeks for single SNPs
DNA sample storage Yes, indefinitely Yes, for a minimum of 25 years No, but the option might be added in the future Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used Free for a minimum of 10 years Yes
Projects supported No Yes Not at this time but reportedly in development Yes. if the free transfer to FTDNA is used No Limited
Project/crowd funding No Yes (Contact customer service for help with group project orders.) No No (was announced to be made available for FTDNA project order) No No
Online community or forum Active online community for 23andMe members, including demo accounts Public FTDNA forums Results can be discussed in the private Full Genomes Facebook group No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the website for others to view, so add your contact information to them. No Facebook group
Sponsored public database No Partial[16] No No No Public results group
Additional DNA testing options available from this company Yes, available as optional add ons at an additional charge: mtDNA haplogroup testing, biogeographical ancestry, chromosome painting, principal component analysis, and red hair test Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, complete or partial mitochondrial DNA testing, and autosomal genome wide scans No No No WGS; Y-STRs; mtDNA
Lead scientists in the company Joanna Mountain, Steve Lemon Connie Bormans Miguel Vilar Martin Blythe Thomas Krahn
Advisory board and consultants for the company Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard Michael Hammer, Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Spencer Wells[17] Greg Magoon Connie Bormans, Elliott Greenspan - -
Ownership Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates Gene by Gene Managing partners Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld Privately held National Geographic
is a non-profit scientific and educational society
DNA Worldwide. Directors: David Nicholson and Hannah Morden Privately held
Lab(s) used National Genetics Institute
(a subsidiary of LabCorp), Los Angeles, California
Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas Eurofins YSEQ
Method for collecting the sample Saliva sample (about 1 cc) Cheek swab Saliva sample or cheek swab Cheek swab Cheek swab Cheek swab
Payment methods VISA, Mastercard, Discover, American Express Credit Cards, Paypal, checks Credit Cards, Paypal, checks Credit Cards, Paypal Visa, Mastercard, American Express, Paypal Paypal; bank transfer
Address 23andMe
899 W Evelyn Ave
Mountain View
CA 94041
Family Tree DNA
1445 North Loop West
Suite 820
TX 77008
Full Genomes Corporation Inc
2275 Research Blvd
Suite 500
MD 20850
The Genographic Project
1145 17th St. N.W.
Washington, D. C.
Living DNA
K10 The Courtyard
Jenson Avenue
Commerce Park
Somerset BA11 2FG
Eiswaldtstrasse 31
12249 Berlin
Phone number Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back 713-868-1438 All communications are via e-mail 888-557-4450 (in the US or Canada) or 713-868-1807 0203 424 3482 (+1) 281-627-8139
E-mail address FTDNA Contact Form
Year founded 2006 2000 2012 2005 2004 (DNA Worldwide); 2016 (Living DNA) 2013



Further reading

See also


  1. v4 includes SNPs that our researchers use to assign genetic ancestry using autosomal DNA markers as well as variants in both mitochondrial DNA and in the Y chromosome. "We will likely start using the chip in the next few weeks." November 18, 2013:
  2. Family Tree DNA also processes tests for a number of affiliate companies: African DNA, iGENEA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin and DNA Worldwide. Participants who join Family Tree DNA's database from these companies will have kit numbers that begin with 'A' from African DNA, 'E' from iGENEA, 'M' from DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, and 'U' from DNA Worldwide. National Geographic Genographic kit transfers begin with 'N'. Family Tree DNA acquired DNA Heritage in April 2011. DNA Heritage customers were given the option of transferring their results to the FTDNA database. DNA Heritage kit numbers begin with the letter 'H'.
  3. Geno 2.0 Next Generation replaces Geno 2.0 which first went on sale in July 2012.
  4. Prices checked 31 July 2017; check company websites for current prices.
  5. The information in this table refers to Y Elite 1.0. See information on the Full Genomes Corporation page.
  6. For a list of the Y-SNPs on the 23andMe chips (v2, v3, v4 and v5) see the spreadsheet provided by Tim Janzen which can be downloaded from this link.
  7. Petrone J. Family Tree DNA Expands beyond Array-based Offerings with New Y Chromosome Sequencing Service ($) GenomeWeb BioArray News, 12 November 2013
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Petrone J. Family Tree DNA's NGS-Based 'BigY' Service to Inform Future Generations of Ancestry Testing Chips ($) GenomeWeb BioArray News, 18 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  9. FGC vs BigY, FGC_Advantage_January2014_release rev2.pdf, by FGC.
  10. Magoon G. Facebook message 2013-10-18: "The 12-16 mbp figure is a rough estimate of the number of sites where we can confidently (>~95%) identify novel SNP variants that are free from various issues that give rise to false positives."
  11. FGC vs BigY, FGC_Advantage_January2014_release rev2.pdf, by FGC.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Vadim Urasin, 17 Sep. 2014 in the YFull Facebook group
  13. Geno 2.0 covered 12,065 variants with some no calls.
  14. The Geno 2.0 test covered 126,307 autosomal SNPs, 3803 X chromosome SNPs, 3281 mt SNPs
  15. Editorial Staff. "Shipping DNA tests worldwide". Family Tree DNA Learning Center. Gene by Gene. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  16. Some surname and haplogroup projects list SNP results for participants.
  17. Editorial Staff. "Who's Who At Family Tree DNA". Family Tree DNA. Gene by Gene. 


23andMe, BritainsDNA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, Family Tree DNA, Full Genomes Corporation, iGENEA, IrelandsDNA, National Geographic Genographic, ScotlandsDNA and YorkshiresDNA are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.